
Abenza, J. F., Couturier, E., Dodgson, J., Dickmann, J., Chessel, A., Dumais, J., et al. (2015). Wall mechanics and exocytosis define the shape of growth domains in fission yeast. Nat. Commun., 6, 13 pp.
Abstract: The amazing structural variety of cells is matched only by their functional diversity, and reflects the complex interplay between biochemical and mechanical regulation. How both regulatory layers generate specifically shaped cellular domains is not fully understood. Here, we report how cell growth domains are shaped in fission yeast. Based on quantitative analysis of cell wall expansion and elasticity, we develop a model for how mechanics and cell wall assembly interact and use it to look for factors underpinning growth domain morphogenesis. Surprisingly, we find that neither the global cell shape regulators Cdc42Scd1Scd2 nor the major cell wall synthesis regulators Bgs1Bgs4Rgf1 are reliable predictors of growth domain geometry. Instead, their geometry can be defined by cell wall mechanics and the cortical localization pattern of the exocytic factors Sec6Syb1Exo70. Forceful redirectioning of exocytic vesicle fusion to broader cortical areas induces proportional shape changes to growth domains, demonstrating that both features are causally linked.



Acena, A., Anabalon, A., & Astefanesei, D. (2013). Exact hairy black brane solutions in 5D antide Sitter space and holographic renormalization group flows. Phys. Rev. D, 87(12), 6 pp.
Abstract: We construct a general class of exact regular black hole solutions with toroidal horizon topology in fivedimensional antide Sitter gravity with a selfinteracting scalar field. With these boundary conditions and due to the nontrivial backreaction of the scalar field, the nohair theorems can be evaded so that an event horizon can be formed. The scalar field is regular everywhere outside the curvature singularity and it vanishes at the boundary where the potential is finite. We study the properties of these black holes in the context ofAdS/CFT duality and comment on the dual operators, which saturate the unitarity bound. We present exact expressions for the beta function and construct a cfunction that characterizes the renormalizationgroup flow.



Acena, A., Anabalon, A., Astefanesei, D., & Mann, R. (2014). Hairy planar black holes in higher dimensions. J. High Energy Phys., (1), 21 pp.
Abstract: We construct exact hairy planar black holes in Ddimensional AdS gravity. These solutions are regular except at the singularity and have stressenergy that satisfies the null energy condition. We present a detailed analysis of their thermodynamical properties and show that the first law is satisfied. We also discuss these solutions in the context of AdS/CFT duality and construct the associated cfunction.



Acuna, M., Eaton, L., & Cifuentes, L. (2004). Genetic variants of the paraoxonases (PON1 and PON2) in the Chilean population. Hum. Biol., 76(2), 299–305.
Abstract: We estimated the frequencies of PON1 and PON2 variants (linked genes) in two hospital samples taken from the northern (San Jose Hospital, SJH) and eastern (Clinica Las Condes, CLC) parts of Santiago, Chile, using the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease digestion. The two hospital samples have different degrees of Amerindian admixture (SJH, 34.5%; CLC, 15.9%), which is reflected in the observed frequencies of the PON1*B allele (SJH, 43.1%; CLC, 33.7%) and the PON2*S allele (SJH, 86.3%; CLC, 77.6%); both allele frequencies are significantly different between samples. The frequencies of the combined PON1PON2 genotypes *A/*B*C/*C, *A/*B*S/*S, and *B/*B*S/*S and of the haplotypes PON*A,C and PON*B,S were significantly different between the SJH and CLC groups. None of the genotype frequencies deviated significantly from those predicted by the HardyWeinberg equation. No linkage disequilibrium was found between the PON1 alleles and any of the PON2 alleles in either group (all p > 0.05). In our samples 38.52% (SJH) and 26.25% (CLC) of chromosomes must have the haplotype PON*B,S, presumed to be related to the risk of coronary artery disease. Twentyfour of 193 (12.4%) SJH individuals and 7 of 122 (5.7%) CLC individuals were homozygotes for this haplotype. Finally, our data indicate ethnicgroupdependent genetic differences in the vulnerability to toxic organophosphorus.



Acuna, M., Eaton, L., Ramirez, N. R., Cifuentes, L., & Llop, E. (2003). Genetic variants of serum butyrylcholinesterase in Chilean Mapuche Indians. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 121(1), 81–85.
Abstract: We estimated the frequencies of serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) alleles in three tribes of Mapuche Indians from southern Chile, using enzymatic methods, and we estimated the frequency of allele BCHE*K in one tribe using primer reduced restriction analysis (PCRPIRA). The three tribes have different degrees of European admixture, which is reflected in the observed frequencies of the atypical allele BCHE*A: 1.11% in Huilliches, 0.89% in Cuncos, and 0% in Pehuenches. This result is evidence in favor of the hypothesis that BCHE*A is absent in native Amerindians. The frequencies of BCHE*F were higher than in most reported studies (3.89%, 5.78%, and 4.41%, respectively). These results are probably due to an overestimation of the frequency of allele BCHE*F, since none of the 20 BCHE UF individuals (by the enzymatic test) individuals analyzed showed either of the two DNA base substitutions associated with this allele. Although enzymatic methods rarely detect the presence of allele BCHE*K, PCRPIRA found the allele in an appreciable frequency (5.76%), although lower than that found in other ethnic groups. Since observed frequencies of unusual alleles correspond to estimated percentages of European admixture, it is likely that none of these unusual alleles were present in Mapuche Indians before the arrival of Europeans. (C) 2003 WileyLiss, Inc.



Acuna, V., Ferreira, C. E., Freire, A. S., & Moreno, E. (2014). Solving the maximum edge biclique packing problem on unbalanced bipartite graphs. Discret Appl. Math., 164, 2–12.
Abstract: A biclique is a complete bipartite graph. Given an (L, R)bipartite graph G = (V, E) and a positive integer k, the maximum edge biclique packing (num') problem consists in finding a set of at most k bicliques, subgraphs of G, such that the bicliques are vertex disjoint with respect to a subset of vertices S, where S E {V, L, R}, and the number of edges inside the bicliques is maximized. The maximum edge biclique (mEs) problem is a special case of the MEBP problem in which k = 1. Several applications of the MEB problem have been studied and, in this paper, we describe applications of the MEBP problem in metabolic networks and product bundling. In these applications the input graphs are very unbalanced (i.e., IRI is considerably greater than ILI), thus we consider carefully this property in our models. We introduce a new formulation for the MEB problem and a branchandprice scheme, using the classical branch rule by Ryan and Foster, for the MEBP problem. Finally, we present computational experiments with instances that come from the described applications and also with randomly generated instances. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



Agostini, C. A., Nasirov, S., & Silva, C. (2016). Solar PV Planning Toward Sustainable Development in Chile: Challenges and Recommendations. J. Environ. Dev., 25(1), 25–46.
Abstract: Over the past decade, the promotion of renewable energy projects in Chile, especially solar energy projects, has become increasingly important, as energy dependence from foreign fossil fuels has increased and concerns regarding climate change continue to grow, posing a significant challenge to the local economy. Even though recent developments toward a more sustainable energy matrix in Chile have significantly increased the investment in the solar energy sector, social and environmental fragilities, combined with the lack of wellfunctioning institutions and the historical marginalization of indigenous communities who have been affected by several energy projects, result in gradually increasing conflictive situations. Unless proper mechanisms are designed and implemented to rapidly and correctly address these challenges, Chile could miss the opportunities that solar energy projects can provide to the development of its communities and to the economic growth of its regions. This article studies solar photovoltaics planning in Chile, focusing on the recent developments and the main challenges ahead, and proposes policy recommendations for effectively addressing these challenges.



Agostini, C. A., Silva, C., & Nasirov, S. (2017). Failure of Energy MegaProjects in Chile: A Critical Review from Sustainability Perspectives. Sustainability, 9(6), 17 pp.
Abstract: A number of successive energy crises over the last decade due to the lack of a balanced investment planning in the energy sector in Chile has led to a strong dependence on external sources and also doubled energy prices in the country, thus posing a significant challenge to the local economy. With the purpose of reaching longterm goals while simultaneously addressing shortterm urgencies, Chile seeks to build a consistent and integrated energy policy in order to attract investment in the sector. Despite an overall attractive investment climate and encouraging market conditions in the country, the energy sector has been adversely affected, in particular, by the communities' opposition to megaprojects based on their expected environmental and social impacts. The study highlights recent experiences of energy generation megaprojects in terms of addressing aspects of sustainability. Based on these experiences, it discusses underdeveloped role of environmental evaluations and the main regulatory challenges ahead, recommending then public policies to effectively address these challenges.



Aguilera, V. M., Vargas, C. A., Lardies, M. A., & Poupin, M. J. (2016). Adaptive variability to lowpH river discharges in Acartia tonsa and stress responses to high PCO2 conditions. Mar. Ecol.Evol. Persp., 37(1), 215–226.
Abstract: Environmental transitions leading to spatial physicalchemical gradients are of ecological and evolutionary interest because they are able to induce variations in phenotypic plasticity. Thus, the adaptive variability to lowpH river discharges may drive divergent stress responses [ingestion rates (IR) and expression of stressrelated genes such as Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Ferritin] in the neritic copepod Acartia tonsa facing changes in the marine chemistry associated to ocean acidification (OA). These responses were tested in copepod populations inhabiting two environments with contrasting carbonate system parameters (an estuarine versus coastal area) in the Southern Pacific Ocean, and assessing an insitu and 96h experimental incubation under conditions of high pressure of CO2 (PCO2 1200ppm). Adaptive variability was a determining factor in driving variability of copepods' responses. Thus, the foodrich but colder and corrosive estuary induced a traits tradeoff expressed as depressed IR under insitu conditions. However, this experience allowed these copepods to tolerate further exposure to high PCO2 levels better, as their IRs were on average 43% higher thanthose of the coastal individuals. Indeed, expression of both the Hsp70 and Ferritin genes in coastal copepods was significantly higher after acclimation to high PCO2 conditions. Along with other recent evidence, our findings confirm that adaptation to local fluctuations in seawater pH seems to play a significant role in the response of planktonic populations to OAassociated conditions. Facing the environmental threat represented by the interplay between multiple drivers of climate change, this biological feature should be examined in detail asa potential tool for risk mitigation policies in coastal management arrangements.



Aiyangar, A. K., Vivanco, J., Au, A. G., Anderson, P. A., Smith, E. L., & Ploeg, H. L. (2014). Dependence of Anisotropy of Human Lumbar Vertebral Trabecular Bone on Quantitative Computed TomographyBased Apparent Density. J. Biomech. Eng.Trans. ASME, 136(9), 10 pp.
Abstract: Most studies investigating human lumbar vertebral trabecular bone (HVTB) mechanical propertydensity relationships have presented results for the superiorinferior (SI), or “ onaxis” direction. Equivalent, directly measured data from mechanical testing in the transverse (TR) direction are sparse and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) densitydependent variations in the anisotropy ratio of HVTB have not been adequately studied. The current study aimed to investigate the dependence of HVTB mechanical anisotropy ratio on QCT density by quantifying the empirical relationships between QCTbased apparent density of HVTB and its apparent compressive mechanical propertieselastic modulus (Eapp), yield strength (sigma(y)), and yield strain (epsilon(y))in the SI and TR directions for future clinical QCTbased continuum finite element modeling of HVTB. A total of 51 cylindrical cores (33 axial and 18 transverse) were extracted from four L1 human lumbar cadaveric vertebrae. Intact vertebrae were scanned in a clinical resolution computed tomography (CT) scanner prior to specimen extraction to obtain QCT density, rho(CT). Additionally, physically measured apparent density, computed as ash weight over wet, bulk volume, rho(app), showed significant correlation with rho(CT) [rho(CT) = 1.0568 x rho(app), r = 0.86]. Specimens were compression tested at room temperature using the Zetos bone loading and bioreactor system. Apparent elastic modulus (Eapp) and yield strength (sigma(y)) were linearly related to the rho(CT) in the axial direction [ESI = 1493.8 x (rho(CT)), r = 0.77, p < 0.01; sigma(Y,SI) = 6.9 x (rho(CT)) = 0.13, r = 0.76, p < 0.01] while a powerlaw relation provided the best fit in the transverse direction [ETR 3349.1 x (rho(CT))(1.94), r = 0.89, p < 0.01; sigma(Y,TR) 18.81 x (rho(CT)) 1.83, r = 0.83, p < 0.01]. No significant correlation was found between epsilon(y) and rho(CT) in either direction. Eapp and sigma(y) in the axial direction were larger compared to the transverse direction by a factor of 3.2 and 2.3, respectively, on average. Furthermore, the degree of anisotropy decreased with increasing density. Comparatively, epsilon(y) exhibited only a mild, but statistically significant anisotropy: transverse strains were larger than those in the axial direction by 30%, on average. Ability to map apparent mechanical properties in the transverse direction, in addition to the axial direction, from CTbased densitometric measures allows incorporation of transverse properties in finite element models based on clinical CT data, partially offsetting the inability of continuum models to accurately represent trabecular architectural variations.



Akhmediev, N., Kibler, B., Baronio, F., Belic, M., Zhong, W. P., Zhang, Y. Q., et al. (2016). Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events. J. Opt., 18(6), 37 pp.
Abstract: The pioneering paper 'Optical rogue waves' by Solli et al (2007 Nature 450 1054) started the new subfield in optics. This work launched a great deal of activity on this novel subject. As a result, the initial concept has expanded and has been enriched by new ideas. Various approaches have been suggested since then. A fresh look at the older results and new discoveries has been undertaken, stimulated by the concept of 'optical rogue waves'. Presently, there may not by a unique view on how this new scientific term should be used and developed. There is nothing surprising when the opinion of the experts diverge in any new field of research. After all, rogue waves may appear for a multiplicity of reasons and not necessarily only in optical fibers and not only in the process of supercontinuum generation. We know by now that rogue waves may be generated by lasers, appear in wide aperture cavities, in plasmas and in a variety of other optical systems. Theorists, in turn, have suggested many other situations when rogue waves may be observed. The strict definition of a rogue wave is still an open question. For example, it has been suggested that it is defined as 'an optical pulse whose amplitude or intensity is much higher than that of the surrounding pulses'. This definition (as suggested by a peer reviewer) is clear at the intuitive level and can be easily extended to the case of spatial beams although additional clarifications are still needed. An extended definition has been presented earlier by N Akhmediev and E Pelinovsky (2010 Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185 14). Discussions along these lines are always useful and all new approaches stimulate research and encourage discoveries of new phenomena. Despite the potentially existing disagreements, the scientific terms 'optical rogue waves' and 'extreme events' do exist. Therefore coordination of our efforts in either unifying the concept or in introducing alternative definitions must be continued. From this point of view, a number of the scientists who work in this area of research have come together to present their research in a single review article that will greatly benefit all interested parties of this research direction. Whether the authors of this 'roadmap' have similar views or different from the original concept, the potential reader of the review will enrich their knowledge by encountering most of the existing views on the subject. Previously, a special issue on optical rogue waves (2013 J. Opt. 15 060201) was successful in achieving this goal but over two years have passed and more material has been published in this quickly emerging subject. Thus, it is time for a roadmap that may stimulate and encourage further research.



Allende, C., Sohn, E., & Little, C. (2015). Treelink: data integration, clustering and visualization of phylogenetic trees. BMC Bioinformatics, 16, 6 pp.
Abstract: Background: Phylogenetic trees are central to a wide range of biological studies. In many of these studies, tree nodes need to be associated with a variety of attributes. For example, in studies concerned with viral relationships, tree nodes are associated with epidemiological information, such as location, age and subtype. Gene trees used in comparative genomics are usually linked with taxonomic information, such as functional annotations and events. A wide variety of tree visualization and annotation tools have been developed in the past, however none of them are intended for an integrative and comparative analysis. Results: Treelink is a platformindependent software for linking datasets and sequence files to phylogenetic trees. The application allows an automated integration of datasets to trees for operations such as classifying a tree based on a field or showing the distribution of selected data attributes in branches and leafs. Genomic and proteonomic sequences can also be linked to the tree and extracted from internal and external nodes. A novel clustering algorithm to simplify trees and display the most divergent clades was also developed, where validation can be achieved using the data integration and classification function. Integrated geographical information allows ancestral character reconstruction for phylogeographic plotting based on parsimony and likelihood algorithms. Conclusion: Our software can successfully integrate phylogenetic trees with different data sources, and perform operations to differentiate and visualize those differences within a tree. File support includes the most popular formats such as newick and csv. Exporting visualizations as images, cluster outputs and genomic sequences is supported. Treelink is available as a web and desktop application at http://www. treelinkapp. com.



Allende, H., Bravo, D., & Canessa, E. (2010). Robust design in multivariate systems using genetic algorithms. Qual. Quant., 44(2), 315–332.
Abstract: This paper presents a methodology based oil genetic algorithms, which finds feasible and reasonably adequate Solutions to problems of robust design in multivariate systems. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the appropriate control factor levels for simultaneously optimizing all of the responses of the system, considering the noise factors which affect it. The algorithm is guided by a desirability function which works with only one fitness function although the system May have many responses. We validated the methodology using data obtained from a real system and also from a process simulator, considering univariate and multivariate systems. In all cases, the methodology delivered feasible solutions, which accomplished the goals of robust design: obtain responses very close to the target values of each of them, and with minimum variability. Regarding the adjustment of the mean of each response to the target value, the algorithm performed very well. However, only in some of the multivariate cases, the algorithm was able to significantly reduce the variability of the responses.



Allende, H., Elias, C., & Torres, S. (2004). Estimation of the option prime: Microsimulation of backward stochastic differential equations. Int. Stat. Rev., 72(1), 107–121.
Abstract: A mathematical statistical model is needed to obtain an option prime and create a hedging strategy. With formulas derived from stochastic differential equations, the primes for US Dollar/Chilean Pesos currency options using a prime calculator are obtained. Furthermore, a backward simulation of the option prime trajectory is used with a numerical method created for backward stochastic differential equations. The use of statistics in finance is highly important in order to develop complex products.



Allende, H., Salas, R., & Moraga, C. (2003). A robust and effective learning algorithm for feedforward neural networks based on the influence function. Lect. Notes Comput. Sc., 2652, 28–36.
Abstract: The learning process of the Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks relies on the data, though a robustness analysis of the parameter estimates of the model must be done due to the presence of outlying observations in the data. In this paper we seek the robust properties in the parameter estimates in the sense that the influence of aberrant observations or outliers in the estimate is bounded so the neural network is able to model the bulk of data. We also seek a trade off between robustness and efficiency under a Gaussian model. An adaptive learning procedure that seeks both aspects is developed. Finally we show some simulations results applied to the RESEX time series.



AllendeCid, H., Canessa, E., Quezada, A., & Allende, H. (2011). An Improved Fuzzy RuleBased Automated Trading Agent. Stud. Inform. Control, 20(2), 135–142.
Abstract: In this paper an improved Fuzzy RuleBased Trading Agent is presented. The proposal consists in adding machinelearningbased methods to improve the overall performance of an automated agent that trades in futures markets. The modified Fuzzy RuleBased Trading Agent has to decide whether to buy or sell goods, based on the spot and futures time series, gaining a profit from the price speculation. The proposal consists first in changing the membership functions of the fuzzy inference model (Gaussian and Sigmoidal, instead of triangular and trapezoidal). Then using the NFAR (NeuroFuzzy Autoregressive) model the relevant lags of the time series are detected, and finally a fuzzy inference system (SelfOrganizing NeuroFuzzy Inference System) is implemented to aid the decision making process of the agent. Experimental results demonstrate that with the addition of these techniques, the improved agent considerably outperforms the original one.



AlvarezGerding, X., CortesBullemore, R., Medina, C., RomeroRomero, J. L., InostrozaBlancheteau, C., Aquea, F., et al. (2015). Improved Salinity Tolerance in Carrizo Citrange Rootstock through Overexpression of Glyoxalase System Genes. Biomed Res. Int., 827951, 7 pp.
Abstract: Citrus plants are widely cultivated around the world and, however, are one of the most salt stress sensitive crops. To improve salinity tolerance, transgenic Carrizo citrange rootstocks that overexpress glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II genes were obtained and their salt stress tolerance was evaluated. Molecular analysis showed high expression for both glyoxalase genes (BjGlyI and PgGlyII) in 5H03 and 5H04 lines. Under control conditions, transgenic and wild type plants presented normal morphology. In salinity treatments, the transgenic plants showed less yellowing, marginal burn in lower leaves and showed less than 40% of leaf damage compared with wild type plants. The transgenic plants showed a significant increase in the dry weight of shoot but there are no differences in the root and complete plant dry weight. In addition, a higher accumulation of chlorine is observed in the roots in transgenic line 5H03 but in shoot it was lower. Also, the wild type plant accumulated around 20% more chlorine in the shoot compared to roots. These results suggest that heterologous expression of glyoxalase system genes could enhance salt stress tolerance in Carrizo citrange rootstock and could be a good biotechnological approach to improve the abiotic stress tolerance in woody plant species.



AlvarezMiranda, E., & Pereira, J. (2017). Designing and constructing networks under uncertainty in the construction stage: Definition and exact algorithmic approach. Comput. Oper. Res., 81, 178–191.
Abstract: The present work proposes a novel Network Optimization problem whose core is to combine both network design and network construction scheduling under uncertainty into a single twostage robust optimization model. The firststage decisions correspond to those of a classical network design problem, while the secondstage decisions correspond to those of a network construction scheduling problem (NCS) under uncertainty. The resulting problem, which we will refer to as the TwoStage Robust Network Design and Construction Problem (2SRNDC), aims at providing a modeling framework in which the design decision not only depends on the design costs (e.g., distances) but also on the corresponding construction plan (e.g., time to provide service to costumers). We provide motivations, mixed integer programming formulations, and an exact algorithm for the 2SRNDC. Experimental results on a large set of instances show the effectiveness of the model in providing robust solutions, and the capability of the proposed algorithm to provide good solutions in reasonable running times. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



Anabalon, A. (2012). Exact black holes and universality in the backreaction of nonlinear sigma models with a potential in (A)dS(4). J. High Energy Phys., (6), 18 pp.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to construct accelerated, stationary and axisymmetric exact solutions of the Einstein theory with self interacting scalar fields in (A)dS4. To warm up, the backreaction of the (non)minimally coupled scalar field is solved, the scalar field equations are integrated and all the potentials compatible with the metric ansatz and Einstein gravity are found. With these results at hand the nonlinear sigma model is tackled. The scalar field Lagrangian is generic; neither the coupling to the curvature, neither the metric in the scalar manifold nor the potential, are fixed ab initio. The unique assumption in the analysis is the metric ansatz: it has the form of the most general Petrov type D vacuum solution of general relativity; it is a a cohomogeneity two Weyl rescaling of the Carter metric and therefore it has the typical PlebanskiDemianski form with two arbitrary functions of one variable and one arbitrary function of two variables. It is shown, by an straightforward manipulation of the field equations, that the metric is completely integrable without necessity of specifiying anything in the scalar Lagrangian. This results is that the backreaction of the scalar fields, within this class of metrics, is universal. The metric functions generically show an explicit dependence on a dynamical exponent that allows to smoothly connect this new family of solutions with the actual PlebanskiDemianski spacetime. The remaining field equations imply that the scalar fields follow geodesics in the scalar manifold with an affine parameter given by a nonlinear function of the spacetime coordinates and define the onshell form of the potential plus a functional equation that it has to satisfy. To further find the exact form of the potential the simplest case associated to a flat scalar manifold is taken. The most general potential compatible with the Einstein theory and the metric ansatz is constructed in this case and it is shown that it has less symmetry than the maximal compact subgroup of the coset construction. Finally, the most general family of (A) dS4 static hairy black holes is explicitly constructed and its properties are outlined.



Anabalon, A., & Astefanesei, D. (2013). On attractor mechanism of AdS(4) black holes. Phys. Lett. B, 727(45), 568–572.
Abstract: We construct a general family of exact nonextremal 4dimensional black holes in AdS gravity with U(1) gauge fields nonminimally coupled to a dilaton and a nontrivial dilaton potential. These black holes can have spherical, toroidal, and hyperbolic horizon topologies. We use the entropy function formalism to obtain the near horizon data in the extremal limit. Due to the nontrivial selfinteraction of the scalar field, the zero temperature black holes can have a finite horizon area even if only the electric field is turned on. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

