
Carreno, A., Aros, A. E., Otero, C., Polanco, R., Gacitua, M., ArratiaPerez, R., et al. (2017). Substituted bidentate and ancillary ligands modulate the bioimaging properties of the classical Re(I) tricarbonyl core with yeasts and bacteria (vol 41, pg 2140, 2017). New J. Chem., 41(7), 2826.



Carreno, A., Gacitua, M., Fuentes, J. A., PaezHernandez, D., Araneda, C., Chavez, I., et al. (2016). Theoretical and experimental characterization of a novel pyridine benzimidazole: suitability for fluorescence staining in cells and antimicrobial properties. New J. Chem., 40(3), 2362–2375.
Abstract: Benzimidazoles presenting intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions have been normally used to better understand the role of Hbonding in biological processes. Here, we present an experimental and theoretical study of a new compound [2,4ditertbutyl6(3Himidazo[4,5c]pyridine2yl)phenol]; (B2), a benzimidazole derivate, exhibiting an intramolecular hydrogen bond. B2 was synthesized and characterized by its H1, HHCOSY, FTIR and mass spectra (EIMS 323 M+). The electronic and optical properties of B2 were studied with theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) and timedependent DFT (TDDFT). B2 showed luminescent emission at room temperature in different solvents, with a large Stokes shift (e.g.; lambda(ex) = 335 nm; lambda(em) = 510 nm in acetonitrile). Also, the quantum yield (phi = 0.21) and theoretical band emission are reported. We found that B2 exhibited a fluorescence emission at around 500 nm in ethanol and in acetonitrile that could be quenched by aqueous solutions of Hg(NO3)(2) in the range of micro molar concentrations. Cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile showed a strong anodic response due to a quasireversible process, with reduction and oxidation waves at 1.28 and 0.47 V vs. SCE. Regarding the biological properties, we assessed the antimicrobial activity of B2 in Salmonella enterica (bacteria), Cryptococcus spp. (yeast), Candida albicans (yeast), Candida tropicalis (yeast) and Botrytis cinerea (mold). To this end, we determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (for bacteria and yeasts), the growth inhibition halos (for yeasts), and the inhibition of mycelial growth (for the mold). We observed that B2 exerted an antifungal effect against Cryptococcus spp. and Botrytis cinerea. In addition, due to its fluorescence properties, B2 has proven to be a suitable marker to observe bacteria (Salmonella enterica and an Escherichia coli derivative), yeasts (Candida albicans), and even human cells (SKOV3 and HEK293) by confocal microscopy.



Carreno, A., Gacitua, M., Fuentes, J. A., PaezHernandez, D., Penaloza, J. P., Otero, C., et al. (2016). Fluorescence probes for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells using Re(CO)(3)(+) complexes with an electron withdrawing ancillary ligand. New J. Chem., 40(9), 7687–7700.
Abstract: Research in fluorescence microscopy presents new challenges, especially with respect to the development of new metalbased fluorophores. In this work, new fac[Re(CO)(3)(bpy)L]PF6 (C3) and fac[ Re(CO)(3)(dmb)L]PF6 (C4) complexes, where L is an ancillary ligand, E2((3aminopyridin4ylimino)methyl)4,6ditertbutylphenol, both exhibiting an intramolecular hydrogen bond, have been synthesized for use as preliminary probes for fluorescence microscopy. The complexes were characterized using chemical techniques such as UVvis, H1NMR, TOCSY, FTIR, cyclic voltammetry, mass spectrometry (EIMS 752.22 M+ for C3 and 780.26 M+ for C4) and DFT calculations including spinorbit effects. The electron withdrawing nature of the ancillary ligand L in C3 and C4 explains their electrochemical behavior, which shows the oxidation of ReI at 1.84 V for C3 and at 1.88 V for C4. The UVvis absorption and emission properties have been studied at room temperature in acetonitrile solution. The complexes show luminescent emission with a large Stokes shift (lambda(ex) = 366 nm, lambda(em) = 610 nm for C3 and lambda(ex) = 361 nm, lambda(em) = 560 nm for C4). The TDDFT calculations suggest that an experimental mixed absorption band at 360 nm could be assigned to MLCT (d(Re) > pi*(dmb)) and LLCT (pi(L) > pi*(dmb)) transitions. We have also assessed the cytotoxicity of C3 and C4 in an epithelial cell line (T84). We found that 12.5 μg ml(1) of C3 or C4 is the minimum concentration needed to kill 80% of the cell population, as determined by neutral red uptake. Finally, the potential of C3 and C4 as biological dyes for use in fluorescent microscopy was assessed in bacteria (Salmonella enterica) and yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus spp.), and in an ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV3). We found that in all cases, both C3 and C4 are suitable compounds to be used as fluorescent dyes for biological purposes. In addition, we present evidence suggesting that these rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes may be also useful as differential fluorescent dyes in yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus spp.), without the need for antibodies.



CataldoBorn, M., ArayaLetelier, G., & Pabon, C. (2016). Obstacles and motivations for earthbag social housing in Chile: energy, environment, economic and codes implications. Rev. Constr., 15(3), 17–26.
Abstract: Chile presents a social housing deficit that needs to be addressed with solutions that increase habitability and environmental benefits. This paper addresses the benefits of implementing earthbag buildings as an option to mitigate the existing social housing deficit in Chile. A literature review presents details on the use of earthbag buildings around the world, and motivations and obstacles for implementing earthbag buildings in Chile. In particular, a case study was simulated to compare an earthbag social house to a reinforced brick masonry social house in terms of environmental and economic performances such as CO2 emissions, energy and costs. It is concluded that both alternatives generate similar CO2 emissions, but the earthbag social house can save up to 20% of energy during its life cycle. In economic terms, the earthbag social house generates savings of 50% and 38% for initial investment and life cycle cost, respectively, compared to the reinforced brick masonry social house. The implementation of earthbag social housing projects would be encouraged by the development of a Chilean building code for earthbag design that provides guidance on the safe use of this technique in a seismic country.



Chaigneau, S. E., Canessa, E., Barra, C., & Lagos, R. (2018). The role of variability in the property listing task. Behavior Research Methods, to appear.



Chaigneau, S. E., Canessa, E., & Gaete, J. (2012). Conceptual agreement theory. New Ideas Psychol., 30(2), 179–189.
Abstract: For some time now, psychological inquiry on reference has assumed that reference is achieved through causal links between words and entities (i.e., direct reference). In this view, meaning is not relevant for reference or coreference. We argue that this view may be germane to concrete objects, but not to diffuse objects (that lack clear spatiotemporal limits, thus preventing the use of direct reference in interactions). Here, we propose that meaning is the relevant dimension when referring to diffuse entities, and introduce Conceptual Agreement Theory (CAT). CAT is a mathematized theory of meaning that specifies the conditions under which two individuals (or one individual at two points in time) will infer they share a diffuse referent. We present the theory, and use stereotype stability and public opinion as case studies to illustrate the theory's use and scope. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



Chaigneau, S. E., Puebla, G., & Canessa, E. C. (2016). Why the designer's intended function is central for proper function assignment and artifact conceptualization: Essentialist and normative accounts. Dev. Rev., 41, 38–50.
Abstract: People tend to think that the function intended by an artifact's designer is its real or proper function. Relatedly, people tend to classify artifacts according to their designer's intended function (DIF), as opposed to an alternative opportunistic function. This centrality of DIF has been shown in children from 6 years of age to adults, and it is not restricted to Western societies. We review four different explanations for the centrality of DIF, integrating developmental and adult data. Two of these explanations are essentialist accounts (causal and intentional essentialism). Two of them are normative accounts (conventional function and idea ownership). Though essentialist accounts have been very influential, we review evidence that shows their limitations. Normative accounts have been less predominant. We review evidence to support them, and discuss how they account for the data. In particular, we review evidence suggesting that the centrality of DIF can be explained as a case of idea ownership. This theory makes sense of a great deal of the existing data on the subject, reconciles contradictory results, links this line of work to other literatures, and offers an account of the observed developmental trend. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.



Chandia, O. (2011). The b ghost of the pure spinor formalism is nilpotent. Phys. Lett. B, 695(14), 312–316.
Abstract: The ghost for worldsheet reparametrization invariance is not a fundamental field in the pure spinor formalism. It is written as a combination of pure spinor variables which have conformal dimension two and such that it commutes with the BRST operator to give the worldsheet stress tensor. We show that the ghost variable defined in this way is nilpotent since the OPE of b with itself does not have singularities. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



Chandia, O. (2014). The nonminimal heterotic pure spinor string in a curved background. J. High Energy Phys., (3), 16 pp.
Abstract: We study the nonminimal pure spinor string in a curved background. We find that the minimal BRST invariance implies the existence of a nontrivial stressenergy tensor for the minimal and nonminimal variables in the heterotic curved background. We find constraint equations for the b ghost. We construct the b ghost as a solution of these constraints.



Chandia, O., & Vallilo, B. C. (2015). C Ambitwistor pure spinor string in a type II supergravity background. J. High Energy Phys., (6), 15 pp.
Abstract: We construct the ambitwistor pure spinor string in a general type II supergravity background in the semiclassical regime. Almost all supergravity constraints are obtained from nilpotency of the BRST charge and further consistency conditions from additional worldsheet the case of AdS(5) x S (5) background.



Chandia, O., & Vallilo, B. C. (2015). Nonminimal fields of the pure spinor string in general curved backgrounds. J. High Energy Phys., (2), 16 pp.
Abstract: We study the coupling of the nonminimal ghost fields of the pure spinor superstring in general curved backgrounds. The coupling is found solving the consistency relations from the nilpotency of the nonminimal BRST charge.



Chandia, O., & Vallilo, B. C. (2016). Onshell type II supergravity from the ambitwistor pure spinor string. Class. Quantum Gravity, 33(18), 9 pp.
Abstract: We obtain all the type II supergravity constraints in the pure spinor ambitwistor string by imposing consistency of local worldsheet gauge symmetries.



Chandia, O., Bevilaqua, L. I., & Vallilo, B. C. (2014). AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds. J. High Energy Phys., (6), 16 pp.
Abstract: In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS(5) x S5 around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.



Chandia, O., Linch, W. D., & Vallilo, B. C. (2011). Compactification of the heterotic pure spinor superstring II. J. High Energy Phys., (10), 22 pp.
Abstract: We study compactifications of the heterotic pure spinor superstring to six and four dimensions focusing on two simple CalabiYau orbifolds. We show that the correct spectrum can be reproduced only if, in the twisted sector, there remain exactly 5 and 2 pure spinor components untwisted, respectively. This naturally defines a “small” Hilbert space of untwisted variables. We point out that the cohomology of the reduced differential on this small Hilbert space can be used to describe the states in the untwisted sector, provided certain auxiliary constraints are defined. In dimension six, the mismatch between the number of pure spinor components in the small Hilbert space and the number of components of a sixdimensional pure spinor is interpreted as providing the projective measure on the analytic subspace (in the projective description) of harmonic superspace.



Chandia, O., Linch, W. D., & Vallilo, B. C. (2017). Master symmetry in the AdS(5) x S5 pure spinor string. J. High Energy Phys., (1), 15 pp.
Abstract: We lift the set of classical nonlocal symmetries recently studied by Klose, Loebbert, and Winkler in the context of Z(2) cosecs to the pure spinor description of the superstring in the AdS(5) x S5 background.



Chandia, O., Mikhailov, A., & Vallilo, B. C. (2013). A construction of integrated vertex operator in the pure spinor sigmamodel in AdS(5) x S5. J. High Energy Phys., 2013(11), 11 pp.
Abstract: Vertex operators in string theory me in two varieties: integrated and unintegrated. Understanding both types is important for the calculation of the string theory amplitudes. The relation between them is a descent procedure typically involving the bghost. In the pure spinor formalism vertex operators can be identified as cohomology classes of an infinitedimensional Lie superalgebra formed by covariant derivatives. We show that in this language the construction of the integrated vertex from an unintegrated vertex is very straightforward, and amounts to the evaluation of the cocycle on the generalized Lax currents.



Checkley, W., GuzmanCottrill, J., Epstein, L., Innocentini, N., Patz, J., & Shulman, S. (2009). ShortTerm Weather Variability in Chicago and Hospitalizations for Kawasaki Disease. Epidemiology, 20(2), 194–201.
Abstract: Background: Kawasaki disease exhibits a distinct seasonality, and shortterm changes in weather may affect its occurrence. Methods: To investigate the effects of weather variability on the occurrence of this syndrome, we conducted a timebetweenevents analysis of consecutive admissions for Kawasaki disease to a large pediatric hospital in Chicago. We used gamma regression to model the times between admissions. This is a novel application of gamma regression to model the time between admissions as a function of subjectspecific covariates. Results: We recorded 723 admissions in the 18year (19862003) study period, of which 700 had complete data for analysis. Admissions for Kawasaki disease in Chicago were seasonal: The mean time between admissions was 34% shorter (relative time = 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.540.81) from JanuaryMarch than from JulySeptember. In 1998, we recorded a larger number of admissions for Kawasaki disease (n = 65) than in other years (mean n = 37). JanuaryMarch months of 1998 were warmer by a mean of 3 degrees C (1.5 degrees C4.4 degrees C) and the mean time between admissions was 48% shorter (relative time = 0.52, 0.360.75) than in equivalent periods of other study years. Conclusions: Our findings show that atypical changes in weather affect the occurrence of Kawasaki disease and are compatible with a link to an infectious trigger. The analysis of interevent times using gamma regression is an alternative to Poisson regression in modeling a time series of sparse daily counts.



Chern, G. W., & Mellado, P. (2016). Magnetic monopole polarons in artificial spin ices. Epl, 114(3), 6 pp.
Abstract: Emergent quasiparticles that arise from the fractionalization of the microscopic degrees of freedom have been one of the central themes in modern condensedmatter physics. The notion of magnetic monopoles, freely moving quasiparticles fragmented from local dipole excitations, has enjoyed much success in understanding the thermodynamic, static, and transport properties of the socalled spinice materials. The artificial version of spin ice, where a lattice of nanoscale magnetic dipoles is sculpted out of a ferromagnetic film, provides a unique opportunity to study these unusual quasiparticles in a materialbydesign approach. Here we show that the elementary excitations in the ice phase of a nanomagnetic array arranged in the pentagonal lattice are composite objects comprised of the emergent monopole and a surrounding cloud of opposite uncompensated magnetic charges. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2016



Chicoisne, R., Espinoza, D., Goycoolea, M., Moreno, E., & Rubio, E. (2012). A New Algorithm for the OpenPit Mine Production Scheduling Problem. Oper. Res., 60(3), 517–528.
Abstract: For the purpose of production scheduling, openpit mines are discretized into threedimensional arrays known as block models. Production scheduling consists of deciding which blocks should be extracted, when they should be extracted, and what to do with the blocks once they are extracted. Blocks that are close to the surface should be extracted first, and capacity constraints limit the production in each time period. Since the 1960s, it has been known that this problem can be cast as an integer programming model. However, the large size of some real instances (310 million blocks, 1520 time periods) has made these models impractical for use in real planning applications, thus leading to the use of numerous heuristic methods. In this article we study a wellknown integer programming formulation of the problem that we refer to as CPIT. We propose a new decomposition method for solving the linear programming relaxation (LP) of CPIT when there is a single capacity constraint per time period. This algorithm is based on exploiting the structure of the precedenceconstrained knapsack problem and runs in O(mn log n) in which n is the number of blocks and m a function of the precedence relationships in the mine. Our computations show that we can solve, in minutes, the LP relaxation of realsized mineplanning applications with up to five million blocks and 20 time periods. Combining this with a quick rounding algorithm based on topological sorting, we obtain integer feasible solutions to the more general problem where multiple capacity constraints per time period are considered. Our implementation obtains solutions within 6% of optimality in seconds. A second heuristic step, based on local search, allows us to find solutions within 3% in one hour on all instances considered. For most instances, we obtain solutions within 12% of optimality if we let this heuristic run longer. Previous methods have been able to tackle only instances with up to 150,000 blocks and 15 time periods.



Chuaqui, M., & Hernandez, R. (2007). Univalent harmonic mappings and linearly connected domains. J. Math. Anal. Appl., 332(2), 1189–1194.
Abstract: We investigate the relationship between the univalence of f and of h in the decomposition f = h + (g) over bar of a serisepreserving harmonic mapping defined in the unit disk D subset of C. Among other results, we determine the holomorphic univalent maps It for which there exists c > 0 such that every harmonic mapping of the form f = h + (g) over bar with vertical bar g'vertical bar < c vertical bar h'vertical bar is univalent. The notion of a linearly connected domain appears in our study in a relevant way. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

