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Author Cabrera, F.; Torres-Aravena, A.; Pinto-Ibieta, F.; Campos, J.L.; Jeison, D.
Title On-Line Control of Feast/Famine Cycles to Improve PHB Accumulation during Cultivation of Mixed Microbial Cultures in Sequential Batch Reactors Type
Year 2021 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health
Volume 18 Issue 23 Pages 12611
Keywords PHB; bioplastics; SBR; dissolved oxygen; feast; famine
Abstract Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) has generated great interest as building blocks for bioplastic production. Their production using mixed microbial cultures represents an interesting alternative, since it enables the use of organic wastes as a carbon source. Feast/famine strategy is a common way to promote selection of microorganisms with PHA accumulation capacity. However, when using waste sources, changes in substrate concentration are expected, that may affect performance and efficiency of the process. This study showed how the dissolved oxygen level can be used for online control of the cycle time, ensuring that the desired feast/famine ratio is effectively applied. An operation strategy is presented and validated, using sequential batch reactors fed with acetate as the carbon source. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was studied, which is the expected type of PHA to be synthetized when using acetate as substrate. Two reactors were operated by applying the proposed control strategy, to provide F/F ratios of 0.2 and 0.6, respectively. A third reactor was operated with a fixed cycle time, for comparison purposes. Results showed that the reactor that operated at an F/F ratio of 0.6 promoted higher biomass productivity and PHB content, as a result of a better use of available time, preventing unnecessary long famine times. The application of the tested strategy is a simple a reliable way to promote a better performance of feast/famine-based bioreactors involving mixed microbial cultures for PHB production.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000734924900001 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1523
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Author Garmendia, M.L.; Matus, O.; Mondschein, S.; Kusanovic, J.P.
Title Gestational weight gain recommendations for Chilean women: a mathematical optimization approach Type
Year 2018 Publication Public Health Abbreviated Journal Public Health
Volume 163 Issue Pages 80-86
Keywords Pregnancy; Weight gain; Obesity; Pregnancy high risk; Chile
Abstract Objectives: We examined if the guidelines for gestational weight gain (GWG) proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) are the most suitable for Chilean women. Study design: Secondary analysis of records of single full-term births at the Dr. Sotero del Rio Hospital, Santiago, Chile, during 2003-2012 (n = 62,579). Methods: From clinical records, we obtained data regarding maternal age, height, prepregnancy and at delivery weights, pathologies during pregnancy such as gestational diabetes (GDM) and pre-eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, and number of infants born small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA). We formulated a mathematical model (MM) to determine the GWG range that maximizes the likelihood of a healthy pregnancy (HP) if the recommendation is followed. We defined an HP as one where the mother has no complications such as pre-eclampsia, GDM, SGA, or LGA. Results: Forty-six percent of women had prepregnancy overweight or obesity. The prevalence of GDM, pre-eclampsia, SGA, and LGA were 3%, 1.2%, 9%, and 12%, respectively. An HP was present in 76% of pregnancies, 79% in the underweight group, 79% in normal weight group, 74% in the overweight group, and 67% in obese women. The GWG recommendations given by the MM (14-20 kg for underweight, 6-20 kg for normal weight, 9 -11 kg for overweight, and 6-7 kg for obese) led to higher probabilities of achieving an HP than the ones obtained with the IOM recommendations. Conclusion: The adoption of GWG recommendations based on characteristics of the Chilean population might lead to better short- and long-term health results for pregnant women. (C) 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Address [Garmendia, M. L.] Univ Chile, Inst Nutr & Food Technol, Avda Libano 5524, Santiago, Chile, Email: susana.mondschein@uai.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher W B Saunders Co Ltd Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0033-3506 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000446680400014 Approved
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 918
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Author Garmendia, ML.; Mondschein, S.; Montiel, B.; Kusanovic, JP.
Title Trends and predictors of birth weight in Chilean children Type
Year 2021 Publication Public Health Abbreviated Journal Public Health
Volume 193 Issue Pages 61-68
Keywords PREPREGNANCY WEIGHT; PREGNANCY; CONSEQUENCES; PREECLAMPSIA; HYPERTENSION; ASSOCIATION; VALIDITY; HISTORY; DISEASE; PARITY
Abstract Objectives: Birth weight is an important public health indicator that reflects fetal health conditions and predicts future health. Identifying the most important factors related to birth weight would help defining preventive health strategies for both mothers and children. The objectives of this study are i. to describe, using a large birth database from a Chilean hospital, the trend of birth weight during 2002-2015, and ii. to determine factors during prenatal care associated with low and high birth weight.

Study design: This study is a secondary analysis of all single birth records at a Chilean Hospital in the southeast district of Santiago, Chile, during 2002-2015 (N = 78,931).

Methods: Sociodemographic information, clinical and obstetric history, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables were evaluated as potential predictors. Birth weight was categorized into five groups as per percentiles of weight as per gestational age. Data were extracted from clinical records. We used classification and regression tree methodology and logistic regression.

Results: The average birth weight for the period was 3316 g (SD 566), with little variation across time. Preterm births increased from 7% in 2002 to 10% in 2015, and births >40 weeks decreased from 10.7% in 2002 to 4.4% in 2015. The percentages of small and large for gestational age changed from 10.9% and 12.7% in 2002 to 9.9% and 13.9% in 2015, respectively. The predictors included in the optimal tree were body mass index, gestational weight gain, pre-eclampsia, and gestational diabetes. We found that women with a pregestational body mass index <28 kg/m(2), gestational weight gain <17 kg, and pre-eclampsia had a probability of 41% of having a small for gestational age neonate. Conversely, women with a body mass index similar to 28 kg/m(2), gestational weight gain similar to 17 kg, and gestational diabetes had a probability of 44% of having a large for gestational age neonate.

Conclusions: This study showed that the most important variables explaining birth weight are those related to maternal nutritional status. Thus, the strategies to promote a normal birth weight should aim for a normal maternal weight at the beginning of pregnancy, gestational weight gain within the recommendations, and prevention of gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. (C) 2021 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0033-3506 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000647341500011 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1387
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Author Gutierrez-Jara, J.P.; Vogt-Geisse, K.; Cabrera, M.
Title Collateral Effects of Insecticide-Treated Nets on Human and Environmental Safety in an Epidemiological Model for Malaria with Human Risk Perception Type
Year 2022 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health
Volume 19 Issue 23 Pages 16327
Keywords mathematical epidemiology; malaria; insecticide-treated nets; insecticide exposure; risk perception; ecosystem damage; mosquito net fishing; impulsive differential equations
Abstract Malaria remains a major health problem in many parts of the world, including Sub-Saharan Africa. Insecticide-treated nets, in combination with other control measures, have been effective in reducing malaria incidence over the past two decades. Nevertheless, there are concerns about improper handling and misuse of nets, producing possible health effects from intoxication and collateral environmental damage. The latter is caused, for instance, from artisanal fishing. We formulate a model of impulsive differential equations to describe the interplay between malaria dynamics, human intoxication, and ecosystem damage; affected by human awareness to these risks and levels of net usage. Our results show that an increase in mosquito net coverage reduces malaria prevalence and increases human intoxications. In addition, a high net coverage significantly reduces the risk perception to disease, naturally increases the awareness for intoxications from net handling, and scarcely increases the risk perception to collateral damage from net fishing. According to our model, campaigns aiming at reducing disease prevalence or intoxications are much more successful than those creating awareness to ecosystem damage. Furthermore, we can observe from our results that introducing closed fishing periods reduces environmental damage more significantly than strategies directed towards increasing the risk perception for net fishing.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000897264200001 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1695
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Author Mondschein, S.; Yankovic, N.; Matus, O.
Title The Challenges of Administering a New Treatment: The Case of Direct -Acting Antivirals for Hepatitis C Virus Type
Year 2021 Publication Public Health Abbreviated Journal Public Health
Volume 190 Issue Pages 116-122
Keywords Hepatitis C virus; Patient prioritization; Heuristics
Abstract Objectives: We develop a patient prioritization scheme for treating patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and study under which scenarios it outperforms the current practices in Spain and Chile.

Study design: We use simulation to evaluate the performance of prioritization rules under two HCV patient cohorts, constructed using secondary data of public records from Chile and Spain, during 2015-2016.

Methods: We use the results of a mathematical model, which determines individual optimal HCV treatment policies as an input for constructing a patient prioritization rule, when limited resources are present. The prioritization is based on marginal analysis on cost increases and health-outcome gains. We construct the Chilean and Spanish case studies and used Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of our methodology in these two scenarios.

Results: The resulting prioritizations for the Chilean and Spanish patients are similar, despite the significant differences of both countries, in terms of epidemiological profiles and cost structures. Furthermore, when resources are scarce compared with the number of patients in need of the new drug, our prioritization significantly outperforms current practices of treating sicker patients first, both in terms of cost and healthcare indicators: for the Chilean case, we have an increase in the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of 0.83 with a cost reduction of 8176 euros per patient, with a budget covering 2.5% of the patients in the cohort. This difference slowly decreases when increasing the available resources, converging to the performance indicators obtained when all patients are treated immediately: for the Spanish case, we have a decrease in the QALYs of 0.17 with a cost reduction of 1134 euros per patient, with a budget covering 20% of the patients in the cohort.

Conclusion: Decision science can provide useful analytical tools for designing efficient public policies that can excel in terms of quantitative health performance indicators.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0033-3506 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000613322000036 Approved
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 1114
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Author Palmeiro-Sanchez, T.; Campos, J.L.; Mosquera-Corral, A.
Title Bioconversion of Organic Pollutants in Fish-Canning Wastewater into Volatile Fatty Acids and Polyhydroxyalkanoate Type
Year 2021 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health
Volume 18 Issue 19 Pages 10176
Keywords acidogenic fermentation; fish-canning wastewater; mixed culture; polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs); saline conditions; volatile fatty acids (VFAs)
Abstract The wastewater from the cookers of a tuna-canning plant was used as feedstock for the process. It was acidified in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) of 1.5 L to produce a mixture of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The effluent contained 28.3 & PLUSMN; 8.7 g CODS/L and 25.0 & PLUSMN; 4.6 g CODVFA/L, 4.4 & PLUSMN; 1.6 g NH4+/L, and 10.9 & PLUSMN; 4.0 g Na+/L, which corresponds to about 28 g NaCl/L approximately. This was used to feed a PHA production system. The enriched MMC presented a capacity to accumulate PHAs from the fermented tuna wastewater. The maximum PHA content of the biomass in the fed-batch (8.35 wt% PHA) seemed very low, possibly due to the variable salinity (from 2.2 up to 12.3 g NaCl/L) and the presence of ammonium (which promoted the biomass growth). The batch assay showed a PHA accumulation of 5.70 wt% PHA, but this is a much better result if the productivity of the reactor is taken into account. The fed-batch reactor had a productivity of 10.3 mg PHA/(L h), while the batch value was about five times higher (55.4 mg PHA/(L h)). At the sight of the results, it can be seen that the acidification of fish-canning wastewater is possible even at high saline concentrations (27.7 g NaCl/L). On the other hand, the enrichment and accumulation results show us promising news and which direction has to be followed: PHAs can be obtained from challenging substrates, and the feeding mode during the accumulation stage has an important role to play when it comes to inhibition.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000709111100001 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1479
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Author Ruffino, B.; Campo, G.; Crutchik, D.; Reyes, A.; Zanetti, M.
Title Drinking Water Supply in the Region of Antofagasta (Chile): A Challenge between Past, Present and Future Type
Year 2022 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health
Volume 19 Issue 21 Pages 14406
Keywords water scarcity; arsenic contamination; mining; Agua Potable Rural program; Chilean Water Code; climate change; water treatment plant; environmental sanitary engineering; SDG6; clean water and sanitation
Abstract Since the mid-nineteen century, when the first mining companies were established in the region of Antofagasta to extract saltpeter, mining managers and civil authorities have always had to face a number of problems to secure a water supply sufficient for the development of industrial activities and society. The unique features of the region, namely the scarcity of rainfall, the high concentration of arsenic in freshwaters and the increasing pressure of the mining sector, have made the supply of drinking water for local communities a challenge. In the 1950s, the town of Antofagasta experienced a serious drinking water crisis. The 300 km long aqueduct starting from the Toconce catchment, opened in 1958, temporarily ended this shortage of drinking water but created an even more dramatic problem. The concentration of arsenic in the water consumed by the population had grown by approx. ten times, reaching the value of 0.860 mg/L and seriously affecting people's health. The water treatment plants (WTPs) which were installed starting from the 1970s in the region (namely the Old and New Salar del Carmen in Antofagasta and Cerro Topater in Calama, plus the two recent desalination plants in Antofagasta and Tocopilla), have ensured, since 2014, that the drinking water coverage in the urban areas was practically universal (>99.9%). However, the rural areas have continued to experience significant shortcomings regarding their capacity to ensure the quality and continuity of the water supply service in the long run. Presently, approx. 42% of the rural population of the region of Antofagasta does not have a formal supply of drinking water. The recent amendments to the Chilean Water Code (March 2022) and the interventions carried out in the framework of the Agua Potable Rural (APR) program were intended to reduce the socio-ecological inequalities due to the lack of drinking water in the semi-concentrated and isolated rural population.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000881328000001 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1659
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