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Author Leung, L.R.; Boos, W.R.; Catto, J.L.; DeMott, C.; Martin, G.M.; Neelin, J.D.; O'Brien, T.A.; Xie, S.; Feng, Z.; Klingaman, N.P.; Kuo, Y-H.; Lee, R.W.; Martinez-Villalobos, C.; Vishnu, S.; Priestley, M.; Tao, Ch.; Zhou,Y.
Title Exploratory precipitation metrics: spatiotemporal characteristics, process-oriented, and phenomena-based Type
Year 2022 Publication Journal of Climate Abbreviated Journal J. Clim.
Volume 35 Issue 12 Pages 36593686
Keywords
Abstract Precipitation sustains life and supports human activities, making its prediction one of the most societally relevant challenges in weather and climate modeling. Limitations in modeling precipitation underscore the need for diagnostics and metrics to evaluate precipitation in simulations and predictions. While routine use of basic metrics is important for documenting model skill, more sophisticated diagnostics and metrics aimed at connecting model biases to their sources and revealing precipitation characteristics relevant to how model precipitation is used are critical for improving models and their uses. This paper illustrates examples of exploratory diagnostics and metrics including: (1) spatiotemporal characteristics such as diurnal variability, probability of extremes, duration of dry spells, spectral characteristics, and spatiotemporal coherence of precipitation; (2) process-oriented metrics based on the rainfall-moisture coupling and temperature-water vapor environments of precipitation; and (3) phenomena-based metrics focusing on precipitation associated with weather phenomena including low pressure systems, mesoscale convective systems, frontal systems, and atmospheric rivers. Together, these diagnostics and metrics delineate the multifaceted and multiscale nature of precipitation, its relations with the environments, and its generation mechanisms. The metrics are applied to historical simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and Phase 6. Models exhibit diverse skill as measured by the suite of metrics, with very few models consistently ranked as top or bottom performers compared to other models in multiple metrics. Analysis of model skill across metrics and models suggests possible relationships among subsets of metrics, motivating the need for more systematic analysis to understand model biases for informing model development.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0894-8755 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1526
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Author Martinez-Villalobos, C.; Neelin, J.D.
Title Regionally high risk increase for precipitation extreme events under global warming Type
Year 2023 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.
Volume 13 Issue Pages 5579
Keywords EL-NINO; HEAVY PRECIPITATION; FUTURE CHANGES; CLIMATE; MODEL; INTENSIFICATION; CONSTRAINT; SATELLITE; FREQUENCY; CMIP5
Abstract Daily precipitation extremes are projected to intensify with increasing moisture under global warming following the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relationship at about 7%/∘C

. However, this increase is not spatially homogeneous. Projections in individual models exhibit regions with substantially larger increases than expected from the CC scaling. Here, we leverage theory and observations of the form of the precipitation probability distribution to substantially improve intermodel agreement in the medium to high precipitation intensity regime, and to interpret projected changes in frequency in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6. Besides particular regions where models consistently display super-CC behavior, we find substantial occurrence of super-CC behavior within a given latitude band when the multi-model average does not require that the models agree point-wise on location within that band. About 13% of the globe and almost 25% of the tropics (30% for tropical land) display increases exceeding 2CC. Over 40% of tropical land points exceed 1.5CC. Risk-ratio analysis shows that even small increases above CC scaling can have disproportionately large effects in the frequency of the most extreme events. Risk due to regional enhancement of precipitation scale increase by dynamical effects must thus be included in vulnerability assessment even if locations are imprecise.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000983866100058 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1761
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Author Martinez-Villalobos, C.; Neelin, J.D.; Pendergrass, A.G.
Title Metrics for Evaluating CMIP6 Representation of Daily Precipitation Probability Distributions Type
Year 2022 Publication Journal of Climate Abbreviated Journal J. Clim.
Volume 35 Issue 17 Pages 57195743
Keywords
Abstract The performance of GCMs in simulating daily precipitation probability distributions is investigated by comparing 35 CMIP6 models against observational datasets (TRMM-3B42 and GPCP). In these observational datasets, PDFs on wet days follow a power-law range for low and moderate intensities below a characteristic precipitation cutoff scale. Beyond the cutoff scale, the probability drops much faster, hence controlling the size of extremes in a given climate. In the satellite products analyzed, PDFs have no interior peak. Contributions to the first and second moments tend to be single-peaked, implying a single dominant precipitation scale; the relationship to the cutoff scale and log-precipitation coordinate and normalization of frequency density are outlined. Key metrics investigated include the fraction of wet days, PDF power-law exponent, cutoff scale, shape of probability distributions, and number of probability peaks. The simulated power-law exponent and cutoff scale generally fall within observational bounds, although these bounds are large; GPCP systematically displays a smaller exponent and cutoff scale than TRMM-3B42. Most models simulate a more complex PDF shape than these observational datasets, with both PDFs and contributions exhibiting additional peaks in many regions. In most of these instances, one peak can be attributed to large-scale precipitation and the other to convective precipitation. Similar to previous CMIP phases, most models also rain too often and too lightly. These differences in wet-day fraction and PDF shape occur primarily over oceans and may relate to deterministic scales in precipitation parameterizations. It is argued that stochastic parameterizations may contribute to simplifying simulated distributions.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0894-8755 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1627
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Author Neelin, J.D.; Martinez-Villalobos, C.; Stechmann, S.N.; Ahmed, F.; Chen, G.; Norris, J.M.; Kuo, Y.H.; Lenderink, G.
Title Precipitation Extremes and Water Vapor Relationships in Current Climate and Implications for Climate Change Type
Year 2022 Publication Current Climate Change Reports Abbreviated Journal Curr. Clim. Change Rep.
Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 17-33
Keywords Rainfall; Climate change; Deep convection; Extreme events; Precipitation probability; Stochastic model
Abstract Purpose of Review: Review our current understanding of how precipitation is related to its thermodynamic environment, i.e., the water vapor and temperature in the surroundings, and implications for changes in extremes in a warmer climate. Recent Findings: Multiple research threads have i) sought empirical relationships that govern onset of strong convective precipitation, or that might identify how precipitation extremes scale with changes in temperature; ii) examined how such extremes change with water vapor in global and regional climate models under warming scenarios; iii) identified fundamental processes that set the characteristic shapes of precipitation distributions. While water vapor increases tend to be governed by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship to temperature, precipitation extreme changes are more complex and can increase more rapidly, particularly in the tropics. Progress may be aided by bringing separate research threads together and by casting theory in terms of a full explanation of the precipitation probability distribution.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2198-6061 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000768603000001 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1560
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