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Author Parot, R.; Rivera, J.I.; Reszka, P.; Torero, J.L.; Fuentes, A.
Title (up) A simplified analytical model for radiation dominated ignition of solid fuels exposed to multiple non-steady heat fluxes Type
Year 2022 Publication Combustion and Flame Abbreviated Journal Combust. Flame
Volume 237 Issue Pages 111866
Keywords Ignition delay time; Fire safety; Integral heat equation; Solid ignition; Translucent solids; In-depth absorption of radiation
Abstract Heat fluxes from fires are strongly time-dependent. Historically, the thermal ignition theory in its classical form has neglected this time dependency until recent years, where theories have been developed to include time-varying incident heat fluxes. This article proposes a simplified general model formulation for the heating of solid fuels exposed to four different heat flux behaviors, considering the penetration of radiation into the medium. The incident heat flux cases developed where: Constant, Linear, Exponential and Polynomial, which represent different situations related to structural and wildland fires. The analytical models consider a spatially averaged medium temperature and exact and approximate solutions are presented, based on the critical ignition temperature criterion, which are valid for solids of any optical thickness. The results were validated by comparison with various models presented in the literature, where the model granted in this work was capable to adjust to all of them, especially when high heat fluxes are involved. Therefore, the proposed model acquires a significant engineering utility since it provides a single model to be used as a general and versatile tool to predict the ignition delay time in a manageable way for solid fuels exposed to different fire conditions.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0010-2180 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000735880500007 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1521
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Author Reszka, P.; Cruz, J.J.; Valdivia, J.; Gonzalez, F.; Rivera, J.; Carvajal, C.; Fuentes, A.
Title (up) Ignition delay times of live and dead pinus radiata needles Type
Year 2020 Publication Fire Safety Journal Abbreviated Journal Fire Saf. J.
Volume 112 Issue Pages 7 pp
Keywords Leaf senescence; Photosynthetic pigments; Critical heat flux; Moisture content; Wildland fire
Abstract There are still many open questions related to the fire behavior of live and dead wildland fuels and their senescence process. We have physically and biochemically studied live and dead pinus radiata needles, their aging process, and their fire behavior using a systematic aging procedure which allows to characterize the evolution of the fuel moisture content and the photosynthetic pigments over time, and to determine the period of time after sample collection in which specimens can be considered to be alive. Results show that pine needles stay alive for up to 12 h after collection if they remain attached to the twigs. The influence of senescence on spontaneous ignition was tested on two bench-scale devices, the I-FIT and the SCALA, under discontinuous and continuous configurations, respectively. Live pine needles showed larger critical heat fluxes than dead needles, while dead and re-hydrated samples have increased critical heat fluxes for greater moisture contents. Experimental results were interpreted with thermal models based on a two-phase description of the fuel layer. We established a correlation of the form 1/t(ig)proportional to q(inc)" for both ignition configurations, which is adequate for engineering applications and allows the estimation of effective properties for wildland fuel beds.
Address [Reszka, P.; Valdivia, J.] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Fac Engn & Sci, Santiago, Chile, Email: andres.fuentes@usm.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Sci Ltd Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0379-7112 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000527282900005 Approved
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 1146
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Author Rivera, J.; Hernandez, N.; Consalvi, JL.; Reszka, P.; Contreras, J.; Fuentes, A.
Title (up) Ignition of wildland fuels by idealized firebrands Type
Year 2021 Publication Fire Safety Journal Abbreviated Journal Fire Saf. J.
Volume 120 Issue Pages 103036
Keywords PILOTED IGNITION; PINE NEEDLES; CONE CALORIMETER; MOISTURE; TIME; BEDS
Abstract Experiments were carried out in the Idealized-Firebrand Ignition Test (I-FIT), a bench scale apparatus specifically designed to test the ignition of forest fuel layers from a representative firebrand. A cylindrical heater was used to model the firebrand, which allowed to control the incident radiative heat flux on the specimen, from the critical heat flux up to 25 kW/m2, for five different porosities of the fuel layer. Experimental ignition delay times were interpreted based on a theoretical model of the radiative heating of the fuel layer. Radiative heat transfer within the fuel layer was modeled by using the P1 approximation. In the limit of small ignition delay times an analytical expression was derived to correlate the inverse of the ignition time to the incident heat flux. This analytical expression is used to obtain the ignition temperature and effective properties for the forest fuel layers, namely the product of the fuel volume fraction by solid fuel density and solid heat capacity. Analytical solutions were found to be consistent with experimental data and a correlation relating the inverse of the non-dimensional time-toignition to the non-dimensional heat flux is provided.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0379-7112 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000639876600016 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1388
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Author Valenzuela, F.; Rivera, J.I.; Ebensperger, F.; Alvarez, C.; Reszka, P.; Auat Cheein, F.; Fuentes, A.
Title (up) Ignition of Wildland Fuels Exposed to a Time-Decreasing Incident Heat Flux Type
Year 2023 Publication Combustion Science and Technology Abbreviated Journal Combust. Sci. Technol.
Volume 195 Issue 14 Pages 3596-3611
Keywords Wildfires; Spotting fires; Thermal model; Firebrand
Abstract The effect of decreasing incident heat fluxes on the ignition delay time of dry pine needles is addressed in the present study. A customized modular instrument (I-FIT) that uses radiant heaters to simulate idealized firebrands ensures experimental repeatability for combustion experiments. Linear incident heat flux ramps are obtained by controlling the power of the heating element, thus simulating idealized firebrands. An analytical model based on the thermal ignition theory was developed and solved analytically using an integral approach. This model includes convective losses and in-depth penetration of radiation. Radiation was modeled using the P1 approximation. The theoretical model is complemented and validated by experimental data, showing increments of the ignition delay times when the negative slope steepness over time increases for the same heat flux. For given values of the initial incident heat flux on the sample, a critical slope beta(cri) is observed. For slopes steeper than this critical value, ignition is not attained.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0010-2202 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:001044563300001 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1865
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Author Azeem, M.; Guérin, A.; Dumais, T.; Caminos, L.; Goldstein, R.E.; Pesci, A.I.; de Dios Rivera, J.; Torres, M.J.; Wiener, J.; Campos, J.L.; Dumais, J.
Title (up) Optimal Design of Multilayer Fog Collectors Type
Year 2020 Publication ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces Abbreviated Journal ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 7736-7743
Keywords
Abstract The growing concerns over desertification have spurred research into technologies aimed at acquiring water from nontraditional sources such as dew, fog, and water vapor. Some of the most promising developments have focused on improving designs to collect water from fog. However, the absence of a shared framework to predict, measure, and compare the water collection efficiencies of new prototypes is becoming a major obstacle to progress in the field. We address this problem by providing a general theory to design efficient fog collectors as well as a concrete experimental protocol to furnish our theory with all the necessary parameters to quantify the effective water collection efficiency. We show in particular that multilayer collectors are required for high fog collection efficiency and that all efficient designs are found within a narrow range of mesh porosity. We support our conclusions with measurements on simple multilayer harp collectors.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher American Chemical Society Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1944-8244 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes doi: 10.1021/acsami.9b19727 Approved
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 1108
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Author Rivera, J.I.; Ebensperger, F.; Valenzuela, F.; Escandar, L.; Reszka, P.; Fuentes, A.
Title (up) Understanding the role of fire retardants on the discontinuous ignition of wildland fuels Type
Year 2023 Publication Proceedings Of The Combustion Institute Abbreviated Journal Proc. Combust. Inst.
Volume 39 Issue 3 Pages 3775-3783
Keywords Ignition delay time; Critical heat flux; Thermal model; Effective properties; Pine needles
Abstract This work reports on a theoretical and experimental study on the role of fire retardant treatments on the discontinuous ignition of wildland fuels. The effect of the concentration of fire retardant in the solution applied to the vegetation is as expected to increase the ignition delay time. We found that the fire retardant modifies the fuel bed effective thermophysical properties, delaying the thermal response of the specimen when subjected to an incident heat flux. Nevertheless, the critical heat flux remains unaltered within the experimental error. We followed a proven approach based on the thermal ignition theory and testing which however has not been previously employed to study fire retardants on wildland fuels. To carry this out, we performed experiments on the I-FIT apparatus, which yields repeatable results and controlled boundary conditions. The theoretical model shows a good agreement with the experimental results, delivering simple expressions for pencil-and-paper calculations of the ignition delay time and analytical tools to evaluate effective fuel properties. These results will help CONAF and other forest services around the world to gain insight on the optimal concentrations and delivery methods for these types of products during wildfire response. & COPY; 2022 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1540-7489 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:001019726900001 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1842
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Author Alvarez, C.; Moreno, G.; Valenzuela, F.; Rivera, J.I.; Ebensperger, F.; Reszka, P.; Fuentes, A.
Title (up) Use of an electric heater as an idealized firebrand to determine ignition delay time of Eucalyptus globulus leaves Type
Year 2023 Publication Fire Safety Journal Abbreviated Journal Fire Saf. J.
Volume 141 Issue Pages 103923
Keywords Wildfires; Spotting fires; Thermal model
Abstract The Idealized-Firebrand Ignition Test (I-FIT) protocol was used to evaluate the piloted ignition delay times of fuel beds composed of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.). The amount of fuel layer used for evaluation ranged between the fraction volume (������) of 0.03 to 0.07 which are values expected to be found in forest bed fuels. A theoretical model was developed to describe the heating and ignition of the fuel beds, based on the thermal ignition theory. The model, which was originally developed for pine needle beds, considers the penetration of radiation to the porous matrix. The model is able to accurately predict the ignition delay time for different values of ������, but shows a poorer accuracy for the temperature evolution. This is explained by the large variability observed for the Eucalyptus leaves.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0379-7112 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:001072435400001 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1889
Permanent link to this record