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Author Alvarez-Miranda, E.; Campos-Valdes, C.; Quiroga, M.M.; Moreno-Faguett, M.; Pereira, J. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A Multi-Criteria Pen for Drawing Fair Districts: When Democratic and Demographic Fairness Matter Type
  Year 2020 Publication Mathematics Abbreviated Journal Mathematics  
  Volume 8 Issue 9 Pages 27 pp  
  Keywords multi-criteria optimization; OR applications; malapportionment; districting; electoral system  
  Abstract Electoral systems are modified by individuals who have incentives to bias the rules for their political advantage (i.e., gerrymandering). To prevent gerrymandering, legislative institutions can rely on mathematical tools to guarantee democratic fairness and territorial contiguity. These tools have been successfully used in the past; however, there is a need to accommodate additional meanings of the term fairness within the electoral systems of modern democracies. In this paper, we present an optimization framework that considers multiple criteria for drawing districts and assigning the number of representatives. Besides some typical districting criteria (malapportionment and contiguity), we introduce novel criteria for ensuring territorial equilibrium and incentives for candidates to deploy their representation efforts fairly during their campaign and period in office. We test the method, which we denote as Multi-criteria Pen, in a recent and a forthcoming reform of the Chilean electoral system. The results show the potential of our tool to improve the current territorial design and offers insights on the motivations, objectives, and deficiencies of both reform plans.  
  Address [Alvarez-Miranda, Eduardo; Moreno-Faguett, Magas] Univ Talca, Fac Engn, Dept Ind Engn, Campus Curico, Curico 3341717, Chile, Email: ealvarez@utalca.cl;  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Mdpi Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2227-7390 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000580771600001 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1246  
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Author Araya-Letelier, G.; Concha-Riedel, J.; Antico, F.C.; Valdes, C.; Caceres, G. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Influence of natural fiber dosage and length on adobe mixes damage-mechanical behavior Type
  Year 2018 Publication Construction And Building Materials Abbreviated Journal Constr. Build. Mater.  
  Volume 174 Issue Pages 645-655  
  Keywords Adobe mixes; Animal fiber; Mechanical properties; Damage control; Fiber-reinforced  
  Abstract This study addresses the use of a natural fiber (pig hair), a massive food-industry waste, as reinforcement in adobe mixes (a specific type of earthen material). The relevance of this work resides in the fact that earthen materials are still widely used worldwide because of their low cost, availability, and low environmental impact. Results show that adobe mixes' mechanical-damage behavior is sensitive to both (i) fiber dosage and (ii) fiber length. Impact strength and flexural toughness are increased, whereas shrinkage distributed crack width is reduced. Average values of compressive and flexural strengths are reduced as fiber dosage and length increase, as a result of porosity generated by fiber clustering. Based on the results of this work a dosage of 0.5% by weight of dry soil using 7 mm fibers is optimal to improve crack control, flexural toughness and impact strength without statistically affecting flexural and compressive strengths. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  
  Address [Araya-Letelier, G.] Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Fac Ingn, Escuela Construcc Civil, Ave Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile, Email: gerardo.araya@uc.cl;  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Sci Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0950-0618 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000433656300061 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 873  
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Author Campos-Valdes, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, E.; Quiroga, MM; Pereira, J.; Duran, FL. doi  openurl
  Title (up) The Impact of Candidates' Profile and Campaign Decisions in Electoral Results: A Data Analytics Approach Type
  Year 2021 Publication Mathematics Abbreviated Journal Mathematics  
  Volume 9 Issue 8 Pages 902  
  Keywords Chilean parliamentary election; candidate profiles; campaign efforts; territorial deployment  
  Abstract In recent years, a wide range of techniques has been developed to predict electoral results and to measure the influence of different factors in these results. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the political profile of candidates (characterized by personal and political features) and their campaign effort (characterized by electoral expenditure and by territorial deployment strategies retrieved from social networks activity) on the electoral results. This analysis is carried out by using three of the most frequent data analyitcs algorithms in the literature. For our analysis, we consider the 2017 Parliamentary elections in Chile, which are the first elections after a major reform of the electoral system, that encompassed a transition from a binomial to a proportional system, a modification of the districts' structure, an increase in the number of seats, and the requirement of gender parity in the lists of the different coalitions. The obtained results reveal that, regardless of the political coalition, the electoral experience of candidates, in particular in the same seat they are running for (even when the corresponding district is modified), is by large the most influential factor to explain the electoral results. However, the attained results show that the influence of other features, such as campaign expenditures, depends on the political coalition. Additionally, by means of a simulation procedure, we show how different levels of territorial deployment efforts might impact on the results of candidates. This procedure could be used by parties and coalitions when planning their campaign strategies.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2227-7390 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000644524000001 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1377  
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