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Author (up) Ruffino, B.; Campo, G.; Crutchik, D.; Reyes, A.; Zanetti, M. doi  openurl
  Title Drinking Water Supply in the Region of Antofagasta (Chile): A Challenge between Past, Present and Future Type
  Year 2022 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health  
  Volume 19 Issue 21 Pages 14406  
  Keywords water scarcity; arsenic contamination; mining; Agua Potable Rural program; Chilean Water Code; climate change; water treatment plant; environmental sanitary engineering; SDG6; clean water and sanitation  
  Abstract Since the mid-nineteen century, when the first mining companies were established in the region of Antofagasta to extract saltpeter, mining managers and civil authorities have always had to face a number of problems to secure a water supply sufficient for the development of industrial activities and society. The unique features of the region, namely the scarcity of rainfall, the high concentration of arsenic in freshwaters and the increasing pressure of the mining sector, have made the supply of drinking water for local communities a challenge. In the 1950s, the town of Antofagasta experienced a serious drinking water crisis. The 300 km long aqueduct starting from the Toconce catchment, opened in 1958, temporarily ended this shortage of drinking water but created an even more dramatic problem. The concentration of arsenic in the water consumed by the population had grown by approx. ten times, reaching the value of 0.860 mg/L and seriously affecting people's health. The water treatment plants (WTPs) which were installed starting from the 1970s in the region (namely the Old and New Salar del Carmen in Antofagasta and Cerro Topater in Calama, plus the two recent desalination plants in Antofagasta and Tocopilla), have ensured, since 2014, that the drinking water coverage in the urban areas was practically universal (>99.9%). However, the rural areas have continued to experience significant shortcomings regarding their capacity to ensure the quality and continuity of the water supply service in the long run. Presently, approx. 42% of the rural population of the region of Antofagasta does not have a formal supply of drinking water. The recent amendments to the Chilean Water Code (March 2022) and the interventions carried out in the framework of the Agua Potable Rural (APR) program were intended to reduce the socio-ecological inequalities due to the lack of drinking water in the semi-concentrated and isolated rural population.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000881328000001 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1659  
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Author (up) Tiwari, AK.; Suozzi, E.; Silva, C.; De Maio, M.; Zanetti, M. doi  openurl
  Title Role of Integrated Approaches in Water Resources Management: Antofagasta Region, Chile Type
  Year 2021 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 13 Issue 3 Pages 1297  
  Keywords hydrology; thematic maps; DEM; mines; pollution risk; GIS  
  Abstract Water is essential for the survival of all living beings and plays a significant role in the growth of any country ' s economy. At present, water depletion and pollution are a serious challenge due to anthropogenic, geogenic and climate change activities worldwide, including in Chile. The Antofagasta region is located in northern Chile and is the heart of its mining industry, playing a significant role in the country ' s economy. The Antofagasta region ' s main challenge is water shortage and contamination. Due to it, the region ' s local population is facing major difficulties in obtaining the necessary water for domestic, industrial, irrigation, and other uses. Therefore, a water resources management plan is essential for the region to maintain a sustainable environment. Considering the above points, significant parameters, such as slope, aspect, elevation, hillshade, drainage, drainage density and river basin-maps of the Antofagasta region prepared using the digital elevation model (DEM) data in geographic information system (GIS) environment. Besides, a pollution risk level assessment of the study area ' s cities/villages done using GIS application. The important created maps and the identification of pollution risk of cities/villages of the present study could provide significant information to policymakers and help them make a suitable water management plan for the area.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000615612700001 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1333  
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