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Author Acuna, M.; Eaton, L.; Cifuentes, L.
Title Genetic variants of the paraoxonases (PON1 and PON2) in the Chilean population Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Human Biology Abbreviated Journal Hum. Biol.
Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 299-305
Keywords PON1; PON2; paraoxonase; Chilean population; Amerindian admixture; coronary artery disease
Abstract We estimated the frequencies of PON1 and PON2 variants (linked genes) in two hospital samples taken from the northern (San Jose Hospital, SJH) and eastern (Clinica Las Condes, CLC) parts of Santiago, Chile, using the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease digestion. The two hospital samples have different degrees of Amerindian admixture (SJH, 34.5%; CLC, 15.9%), which is reflected in the observed frequencies of the PON1*B allele (SJH, 43.1%; CLC, 33.7%) and the PON2*S allele (SJH, 86.3%; CLC, 77.6%); both allele frequencies are significantly different between samples. The frequencies of the combined PON1-PON2 genotypes *A/*B-*C/*C, *A/*B-*S/*S, and *B/*B-*S/*S and of the haplotypes PON*A,C and PON*B,S were significantly different between the SJH and CLC groups. None of the genotype frequencies deviated significantly from those predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equation. No linkage disequilibrium was found between the PON1 alleles and any of the PON2 alleles in either group (all p > 0.05). In our samples 38.52% (SJH) and 26.25% (CLC) of chromosomes must have the haplotype PON*B,S, presumed to be related to the risk of coronary artery disease. Twenty-four of 193 (12.4%) SJH individuals and 7 of 122 (5.7%) CLC individuals were homozygotes for this haplotype. Finally, our data indicate ethnic-group-dependent genetic differences in the vulnerability to toxic organophosphorus.
Address Univ Chile, Genet Program, ICBM, Santiago 7, Chile
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wayne State Univ Press Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0018-7143 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000223036000009 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 36
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Author Agostini, C.A.; Guzman, A.M.; Nasirov, S.; Silva, C.
Title A surplus based framework for cross-border electricity trade in South America Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Energy Policy Abbreviated Journal Energy Policy
Volume 128 Issue Pages 673-684
Keywords Electricity regulation; Import/export of electricity; South America; Chile
Abstract The South American region has experienced a steady increase in its demand for electricity and faces several challenges in the development of the electricity sector. Among them, high fluctuations in hydro generation, high and volatile prices of fossil fuels, and environmental and social impacts associated to energy activities. Strengthening cooperation for cross-border electricity trade is considered a sustainable alternative for addressing these challenges. For the expansion of electricity trade among countries within the region, both infrastructure and a regulation that defines the conditions of the electric power exchanges between countries are required. A good regulatory framework would allow all market players to have access to the commercialization of energy with other countries in the region, guarantee that the treatment of exchanges is non-discriminatory, and maintain the efficiency, cost effectiveness and security characteristics operation of all electricity systems. In this context, this paper proposes a framework with the basic setting conditions for the import and export of energy from the “surplus” available for exchange. The empirical analysis of the regulatory proposal, based on simulations, shows that the exchange of energy from Chile with its neighboring countries is feasible in a clear and transparent manner, reducing the marginal costs of energy and the total cost of operation, keeping the average cost of generation relatively constant.
Address [Agostini, Claudio A.] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Sch Govt, Santiago, Chile, Email: Claudio.agostini@uai.cl;
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Sci Ltd Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0301-4215 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000463688800064 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 995
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Author Agostini, C.A.; Nasirov, S.; Silva, C.
Title Solar PV Planning Toward Sustainable Development in Chile: Challenges and Recommendations Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal Of Environment & Development Abbreviated Journal J. Environ. Dev.
Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 25-46
Keywords solar energy; sustainability; development; Chile; policy challenges
Abstract Over the past decade, the promotion of renewable energy projects in Chile, especially solar energy projects, has become increasingly important, as energy dependence from foreign fossil fuels has increased and concerns regarding climate change continue to grow, posing a significant challenge to the local economy. Even though recent developments toward a more sustainable energy matrix in Chile have significantly increased the investment in the solar energy sector, social and environmental fragilities, combined with the lack of well-functioning institutions and the historical marginalization of indigenous communities who have been affected by several energy projects, result in gradually increasing conflictive situations. Unless proper mechanisms are designed and implemented to rapidly and correctly address these challenges, Chile could miss the opportunities that solar energy projects can provide to the development of its communities and to the economic growth of its regions. This article studies solar photovoltaics planning in Chile, focusing on the recent developments and the main challenges ahead, and proposes policy recommendations for effectively addressing these challenges.
Address [Agostini, Claudio A.] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Econ, Sch Govt, Santiago, Chile, Email: claudio.agostini@uai.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Sage Publications Inc Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1070-4965 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000370428400002 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 588
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Author Agostini, C.A.; Silva, C.; Nasirov, S.
Title Failure of Energy Mega-Projects in Chile: A Critical Review from Sustainability Perspectives Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 9 Issue 6 Pages 17 pp
Keywords energy mega-projects; Chile; environmental evaluation; sustainability
Abstract A number of successive energy crises over the last decade due to the lack of a balanced investment planning in the energy sector in Chile has led to a strong dependence on external sources and also doubled energy prices in the country, thus posing a significant challenge to the local economy. With the purpose of reaching long-term goals while simultaneously addressing short-term urgencies, Chile seeks to build a consistent and integrated energy policy in order to attract investment in the sector. Despite an overall attractive investment climate and encouraging market conditions in the country, the energy sector has been adversely affected, in particular, by the communities' opposition to mega-projects based on their expected environmental and social impacts. The study highlights recent experiences of energy generation mega-projects in terms of addressing aspects of sustainability. Based on these experiences, it discusses underdeveloped role of environmental evaluations and the main regulatory challenges ahead, recommending then public policies to effectively address these challenges.
Address [Agostini, Claudio A.] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Sch Govt, Ave Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Santiago 7941169, Chile, Email: claudio.agostini@uai.cl;
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Mdpi Ag Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000404133200195 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 745
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Author Araya-Letelier, G.; Parra, P.F.; Lopez-Garcia, D.; Garcia-Valdes, A.; Candia, G.; Lagos, R.
Title Collapse risk assessment of a Chilean dual wall-frame reinforced concrete office building Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Engineering Structures Abbreviated Journal Eng. Struct.
Volume 183 Issue Pages 770-779
Keywords Collapse assessment; Chilean code-conforming building; Incremental dynamic analyses; Seismic hazard models
Abstract Several code-conforming reinforced concrete buildings were severely damaged during the 2010 moment magnitude (M-w) 8.8 Chile earthquake, raising concerns about their real collapse margin. Although critical updates were introduced into the Chilean design codes after 2010, guidelines for collapse risk assessment of Chilean buildings remain insufficient. This study evaluates the collapse potential of a typical dual system (shear walls and moment frames) office building in Santiago. Collapse fragility functions were obtained through incremental dynamic analyses using a state-of-the-art finite element model of the building. Site-specific seismic hazard curves were developed, which explicitly incorporated epistemic uncertainty, and combined with the collapse fragility functions to estimate the mean annual frequency of collapse (lambda(c)) values and probabilities of collapse in 50-years (P-c(50)). Computed values of lambda(c) and P-c(50) were on the order of 10(-5)-10(-4), and 0.1-0.7%, respectively, consistent with similar studies developed for buildings in the US. The results also showed that the deaggregation of lambda(c) was controlled by small to medium earthquake intensities and that different models of the collapse fragility functions and hazard curves had a non-negligible effect on lambda(c) and P-c(50), and thus, propagation of uncertainty in risk assessment problems must be adequately taken into account.
Address [Araya-Letelier, G.] Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Escuela Construcc Civil, Ave Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile, Email: gerardo.araya@uc.cl;
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Sci Ltd Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0141-0296 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000462690000055 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 994
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Author Arriagada, R.; Aldunce, P.; Blanco, G.; Ibarra, C.; Moraga, P.; Nahuelhual, L.; O'Ryan, R.; Urquiza, A.; Gallardo, L.
Title Climate change governance in the anthropocene: emergence of polycentrism in Chile Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Elementa-Science Of The Anthropocene Abbreviated Journal Elementa-Sci. Anthrop.
Volume 6 Issue Pages 13 pp
Keywords Climate change; Governance; Polycentrism; Public consultation; Chile
Abstract Multilateral efforts are essential to an effective response to climate change, but individual nations define climate action policy by translating local and global objectives into adaptation and mitigation actions. We propose a conceptual framework to explore opportunities for polycentric climate governance, understanding polycentricity as a property that encompasses the potential for coordinating multiple centers of semiautonomous decision-making. We assert that polycentrism engages a diverse array of public and private actors for a more effective approach to reducing the threat of climate change. In this way, polycentrism may provide an appropriate strategy for addressing the many challenges of climate governance in the Anthropocene. We review two Chilean case studies: Chile's Nationally Determined Contribution on Climate Change and the Chilean National Climate Change Action Plan. Our examination demonstrates that Chile has included a diversity of actors and directed significant financial resources to both processes. The central government coordinated both of these processes, showing the key role of interventions at higher jurisdictional levels in orienting institutional change to improve strategic planning and better address climate change. Both processes also provide some evidence of knowledge co-production, while at the same time remaining primarily driven by state agencies and directed by technical experts. Efforts to overcome governance weaknesses should focus on further strengthening existing practices for climate change responses, establishing new institutions, and promoting decision-making that incorporates diverse social actors and multiple levels of governance. In particular, stronger inclusion of local level actors provides an opportunity to enhance polycentric modes of governance and improve climate change responses. Fully capitalizing on this opportunity requires establishing durable communication channels between different levels of governance.
Address [Arriagada, Rodrigo; Aldunce, Paulina; Blanco, Gustavo; Ibarra, Cecilia; Moraga, Pilar; Nahuelhual, Laura; O'Ryan, Raul; Urquiza, Anahi; Gallardo, Laura] Ctr Climate & Resilience Res, CR2, FONDAP15110009, Santiago, Chile, Email: rarriagadac@uc.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Univ California Press Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2325-1026 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000450637500001 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 929
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Author Caceres, G.; Nasirov, S.; Zhang, H.L.; Araya-Letelier, G.
Title Residential Solar PV Planning in Santiago, Chile: Incorporating the PM10 Parameter Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 422-440
Keywords PV solar panels; efficiency; LCOE; dust; PM10; Santiago; Chile
Abstract This paper addresses an economic study of the installation of photovoltaic (PV) solar panels for residential power generation in Santiago, Chile, based on the different parameters of a PV system, such as efficiency. As a performance indicator, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) was used, which indicates the benefit of the facility vs. the current cost of electrical energy. In addition, due to a high level of airborne dusts typically associated with PM10, the effect of the dust deposition on PV panels' surfaces and the effect on panel performance are examined. Two different scenarios are analyzed: on-grid PV plants and off-grid PV plants.
Address [Caceres, Gustavo; Nasirov, Shahriyar; Araya-Letelier, Gerardo] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Santiago 7941169, Chile, Email: gustavo.caceres@uai.cl;
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Mdpi Ag Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000348399300020 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 451
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Author Cataldo-Born, M.; Araya-Letelier, G.; Pabon, C.
Title Obstacles and motivations for earthbag social housing in Chile: energy, environment, economic and codes implications Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Revista De La Construccion Abbreviated Journal Rev. Constr.
Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 17-26
Keywords Earthbag buildings; chilean social housing; environmental performance; economic performance; building code
Abstract Chile presents a social housing deficit that needs to be addressed with solutions that increase habitability and environmental benefits. This paper addresses the benefits of implementing earthbag buildings as an option to mitigate the existing social housing deficit in Chile. A literature review presents details on the use of earthbag buildings around the world, and motivations and obstacles for implementing earthbag buildings in Chile. In particular, a case study was simulated to compare an earthbag social house to a reinforced brick masonry social house in terms of environmental and economic performances such as CO2 emissions, energy and costs. It is concluded that both alternatives generate similar CO2 emissions, but the earthbag social house can save up to 20% of energy during its life cycle. In economic terms, the earthbag social house generates savings of 50% and 38% for initial investment and life cycle cost, respectively, compared to the reinforced brick masonry social house. The implementation of earthbag social housing projects would be encouraged by the development of a Chilean building code for earthbag design that provides guidance on the safe use of this technique in a seismic country.
Address [Cataldo-Born, Matias] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Santiago, Chile, Email: matias.cataldo2007@alumnos.uai.cl;
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Escuela Construccion Civil Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0718-915x ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000395667400002 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 719
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Author Corral, N.; Anrique, N.; Fernandes, D.; Parrado, C.; Caceres, G.
Title Power, placement and LEC evaluation to install CSP plants in northern Chile Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews Abbreviated Journal Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev.
Volume 16 Issue 9 Pages 6678-6685
Keywords CSP plant; Solar radiation; Northern Chile; LEC; Power plant capacity; Back-up and TES system; Placement evaluation
Abstract Chile is expecting a 5.4% growth in energy consumption per year until 2030, requiring new and better solutions for the upward trend of its electricity demand. This state leads to select and study one of the potential alternatives for electricity generation: concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. Such renewable technology found in Chile a very favorable condition. Recent researches indicate Atacama Desert as one of the best regions for solar energy worldwide, having an average radiation higher than in places where CSP plants are currently implemented, e.g. Spain and USA. The aim of this study is to present an analysis of levelized energy cost (LEC) for different power capacities of CSP plants placed in distinct locations in northern Chile. The results showed that CSP plants can be implemented in Atacama Desert with LECs around 19 (sic)US$/kWh when a gas-fired backup and thermal energy storage (TES) systems are fitted. This value increases to approximately 28 (sic)US$/kWh if there is no backup system. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Address [Corral, Nicolas; Anrique, Nicolas; Fernandes, Dalila; Parrado, Cristobal; Caceres, Gustavo] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Santiago, Chile, Email: n.anrique@ieee.org
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1364-0321 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000312822300012 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 258
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Author Gallardo, L.; Barraza, F.; Ceballos, A.; Galleguillos, M.; Huneeus, N.; Lambert, F.; Ibarra, C.; Munizaga, M.; O'Ryan, R.; Osses, M.; Tolvett, S.; Urquiza, A.; Veliz, K.D.
Title Evolution of air quality in Santiago: The role of mobility and lessons from the science-policy interface Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Elementa-Science Of The Anthropocene Abbreviated Journal Elementa-Sci. Anthrop.
Volume 6 Issue Pages 23 pp
Keywords Air quality; mobility; urbanization; climate mitigation; policy-science interface; Chile
Abstract Worldwide, urbanization constitutes a major and growing driver of global change and a distinctive feature of the Anthropocene. Thus, urban development paths present opportunities for technological and societal transformations towards energy efficiency and decarbonization, with benefits for both greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollution mitigation. This requires a better understanding of the intertwined dynamics of urban energy and land use, emissions, demographics, governance, and societal and biophysical processes. In this study, we address several characteristics of urbanization in Santiago (33.5 degrees S, 70.5 degrees W, 500 m a.s.l.), the capital city of Chile. Specifically, we focus on the multiple links between mobility and air quality, describe the evolution of these two aspects over the past 30 years, and review the role scientific knowledge has played in policy-making. We show evidence of how technological measures (e.g., fuel quality, three-way catalytic converters, diesel particle filters) have been successful in decreasing coarse mode aerosol (PM10) concentrations in Santiago despite increasing urbanization (e.g., population, motorization, urban sprawl). However, we also show that such measures will likely be insufficient if behavioral changes do not achieve an increase in the use of public transportation. Our investigation seeks to inform urban development in the Anthropocene, and our results may be useful for other developing countries, particularly in Latin America and the Caribbean where more than 80% of the population is urban.
Address [Gallardo, Laura; Barraza, Francisco; Ceballos, Andres; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Huneeus, Nicolas; Lambert, Fabrice; Ibarra, Cecilia; Munizaga, Marcela; O'Ryan, Raul; Osses, Mauricio; Tolvett, Sebastian; Urquiza, Anahi; Veliz, Karina D.] Ctr Climate & Resilience Res CR2, FONDAP15110009, Santiago, Region Metropol, Chile, Email: lgallard@u.uchile.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Univ California Press Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2325-1026 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000431309200001 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 850
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Author Garmendia, M.L.; Matus, O.; Mondschein, S.; Kusanovic, J.P.
Title Gestational weight gain recommendations for Chilean women: a mathematical optimization approach Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Public Health Abbreviated Journal Public Health
Volume 163 Issue Pages 80-86
Keywords Pregnancy; Weight gain; Obesity; Pregnancy high risk; Chile
Abstract Objectives: We examined if the guidelines for gestational weight gain (GWG) proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) are the most suitable for Chilean women. Study design: Secondary analysis of records of single full-term births at the Dr. Sotero del Rio Hospital, Santiago, Chile, during 2003-2012 (n = 62,579). Methods: From clinical records, we obtained data regarding maternal age, height, prepregnancy and at delivery weights, pathologies during pregnancy such as gestational diabetes (GDM) and pre-eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, and number of infants born small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA). We formulated a mathematical model (MM) to determine the GWG range that maximizes the likelihood of a healthy pregnancy (HP) if the recommendation is followed. We defined an HP as one where the mother has no complications such as pre-eclampsia, GDM, SGA, or LGA. Results: Forty-six percent of women had prepregnancy overweight or obesity. The prevalence of GDM, pre-eclampsia, SGA, and LGA were 3%, 1.2%, 9%, and 12%, respectively. An HP was present in 76% of pregnancies, 79% in the underweight group, 79% in normal weight group, 74% in the overweight group, and 67% in obese women. The GWG recommendations given by the MM (14-20 kg for underweight, 6-20 kg for normal weight, 9 -11 kg for overweight, and 6-7 kg for obese) led to higher probabilities of achieving an HP than the ones obtained with the IOM recommendations. Conclusion: The adoption of GWG recommendations based on characteristics of the Chilean population might lead to better short- and long-term health results for pregnant women. (C) 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Address [Garmendia, M. L.] Univ Chile, Inst Nutr & Food Technol, Avda Libano 5524, Santiago, Chile, Email: susana.mondschein@uai.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher W B Saunders Co Ltd Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0033-3506 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000446680400014 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 918
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Author Genco, F.; Genco, G.
Title Nuclear desalination in Chile: a competitive solution Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Desalination And Water Treatment Abbreviated Journal Desalin. Water Treat.
Volume 140 Issue Pages 24-34
Keywords Small modular reactors; Chile 2050 energy policy; Nuclear desalination; IAEA DEEP 5 software
Abstract Renewable energy sources are considered the main drive for developing at least 70% of the total energy in Chile by 2050. All major international greenhouse gases reduction agreements include growth of renewable energy sources and nuclear power as the only ways to significantly reduce emissions by the decade 2040-50. Chile's energy production matrix still relies heavily on fossil fuels, making very difficult to match the goal targeted by international agreements. For these reasons, the possibility of using nuclear power plants is considered. Small modular reactors (SMRs) in particular seems particularly suitable for a country like Chile for many reasons: SMRs are scalable and can provide energy in remote locations with no or limited grids (Atacama desert); SMRs can cope easily with future demands for expansion, thanks to their modularity; SMRs are cost effective and use all the latest developments in safety. This paper examines, using IAEA DEEP 5 economic software, the costs of nuclear desalinated water produced for the Chilean mining industry. Comparisons with respect to existing fossil fuels solutions show that the final cost is very competitive and allow for significant reduction of CO2 emissions.
Address [Genco, Filippo] Adolfo Ibanez Univ, Fac Engn & Sci, Av Las Torres 2640,Edificio E, Santiago, Chile, Email: filippo.genco@uai.cl;
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Desalination Publ Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1944-3994 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000458914100004 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 981
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Author Girard, A.; Roberts, C.; Simon, F.; Ordonez, J.
Title Solar electricity production and taxi electrical vehicle conversion in Chile Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal Of Cleaner Production Abbreviated Journal J. Clean Prod.
Volume 210 Issue Pages 1261-1269
Keywords Electric vehicle; Public transport; CO2 emissions; Solar charging station; Chile
Abstract Carbon emissions from the Chilean public transport sector have doubled between 2000 and 2013. Thus, the need to find alternative clean-air solutions is becoming increasingly critical. With this in mind, this paper addresses a solution to the aforementioned problem by studying the conversion of both taxis and “colectivos” (public taxis with defined routes) into electric vehicles (EV) to be used in the Chilean public transport sector. In Chile, 80% of taxis are Nissan V16s, meaning that all of these vehicles will be replaced and end up in landfills within the next 5-8 years. This study presents an option to give a second life to these vehicles, addressing environmental and financial issues. It compares emissions from the Nissan V16's conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) with an equivalent electric conversion prototype. Furthermore, it analyses the CO2 emissions from the EV that has been fully charged by the Chilean grid as well as one that has been charged by a solar photovoltaic system. A solar recharging station for EV taxis is designed, taking advantage of the high levels of solar radiation in Chile. The results show that EV conversion does not lead to real environmental benefits, in comparison to its ICE equivalent, when it is charged with the grid. However, the results also show a considerable decrease in cost and CO2 emissions per km travelled when using solar energy to charge the batteries. Future challenges include identifying solutions to cope with solar intermittence and minimizing CO2 emissions during periods of low radiation. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Address [Girard, Aymeric] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Av Padre Hurtado 750, Altos Del Sporting, Vina Del Mar, Chile, Email: aymeric.girard@gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Sci Ltd Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000456762600114 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 975
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Author Ibarra, C.; O'Ryan, R.; Silva, B.
Title Applying knowledge governance to understand the role of science in environmental regulation: The case of arsenic in Chile Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environmental Science & Policy Abbreviated Journal Environ. Sci. Policy
Volume 86 Issue Pages 115-124
Keywords Science-policy interface; Knowledge governance; Civic epistemology; Knowledge systems; Emergent policy fields; Arsenic regulation; Chile
Abstract The relationship between scientific knowledge and decision-making surrounding environmental issues is complex and represents a flourishing area of scholarship and practice. However, a sense of frustration persists regarding efforts to increase the use of science for decision-making. Regulations of copper smelter arsenic emissions developed in Chile during the 1990s represent a successful example of science informing policy making. The case involved production and use of local science in contrast to the common practice of copying international ambient standards. In this paper, we investigate arsenic regulation in Chile in the 1990s and focus on the role of the major science intervention during the process, project FONDEF 2-24. The case is examined through the lens of knowledge governance (van Kerkhoff and Pilbeam, 2017). This theoretically-oriented approach guides our critical reflection on the relationship between knowledge and policy making, taking into consideration the formal and informal rules that shape the intervention and the underlying social and cultural patterns. The success of the science intervention's influence on policy is better understood with such a perspective. We expand the knowledge governance approach by scrutinizing the relations of coherence between levels of analysis to assess their alignment. The approach could be helpful for studying other cases, particularly at times when a new field of policy is emerging.
Address [Ibarra, Cecilia; O'Ryan, Raul] Univ Chile, Ctr Climate & Resilience Res, CR2, Blanco 2002, Santiago, Chile, Email: cibarra@dgf.uchile.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Sci Ltd Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1462-9011 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000435052500011 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 1037
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Author Lagos, M.; Caceres, C.W.; Lardies, M.A.
Title Geographic variation in acid- base balance of the intertidal crustacean Cyclograpsus cinereus ( Decapoda, Grapsidae) during air exposure Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal Of The Marine Biological Association Of The United Kingdom Abbreviated Journal J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K.
Volume 94 Issue 1 Pages 159-165
Keywords emersion; latitudinal gradient; respiration; intertidal; Chile; lactate dehydrogenase; LDH; acidosis
Abstract In intertidal poikilotherms with wide geographic distribution, physiological variations are ubiquitous, due to phenotypic plasticity and/or individual geographic variation. Using the grapsid crab, Cyclograpsus cinereus as a study model, acclimatization differences in respiratory physiology were evaluated among populations along the Chilean coast, covering a latitudinal gradient of about 2000km. This species inhabits the supratidal zones and, therefore, is subject to constant immersion and emersion periods, producing physiological acidification due to CO2 retention, mainly in the branchial cavity. Individuals of six populations were collected along the coastline of Chile and were exposed to air for different time periods in the laboratory. The following parameters were measured: pH, Ca2+, Cl- and haemolymphatic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity. Populations from lower latitudes were significantly different from those from central and southern Chile, with a higher haemolymphatic pH variation and higher Ca2+ level, along with lower levels of Cl- and LDH enzyme activity. This indicates that the populations from lower latitudes, which are subject to higher air temperatures during emersion, have a higher homeostatic capacity during emersion periods than those of intermediate and higher latitudes. This response seems to be determined by genetic bases due to adaptation to the local environment.
Address [Lagos, Marcelo; Caceres, Cristian W.] Univ Catolica Ssma, Fac Ciencias, Dept Ecol, Concepcion, Chile, Email: marco.lardies@uai.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Cambridge Univ Press Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0025-3154 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000332452300016 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 376
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Author Lagos, N.A.; Benitez, S.; Duarte, C.; Lardies, M.A.; Broitman, B.R.; Tapia, C.; Tapia, P.; Widdicombe, S.; Vargas, C.A.
Title Effects of temperature and ocean acidification on shell characteristics of Argopecten purpuratus: implications for scallop aquaculture in an upwelling-influenced area Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Aquaculture Environment Interactions Abbreviated Journal Aquac. Environ. Interact.
Volume 8 Issue Pages 357-370
Keywords Calcification; Shell growth; Scallop farming; Upwelling; Chile
Abstract Coastal upwelling regions already constitute hot spots of ocean acidification as naturally acidified waters are brought to the surface. This effect could be exacerbated by ocean acidification and warming, both caused by rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2. Along the Chilean coast, upwelling supports highly productive fisheries and aquaculture activities. However, during recent years, there has been a documented decline in the national production of the native scallop Argopecten purpuratus. We assessed the combined effects of temperature and pCO(2)-driven ocean acidification on the growth rates and shell characteristics of this species farmed under the natural influence of upwelling waters occurring in northern Chile (30 degrees S, Tongoy Bay). The experimental scenario representing current conditions (14 degrees C, pH similar to 8.0) were typical of natural values recorded in Tongoy Bay, whilst conditions representing the low pH scenario were typical of an adjacent upwelling area (pH similar to 7.6). Shell thickness, weight, and biomass were reduced under low pH (pH similar to 7.7) and increased temperature (18 degrees C) conditions. At ambient temperature (14 degrees C) and low pH, scallops showed increased shell dissolution and low growth rates. However, elevated temperatures ameliorated the impacts of low pH, as evidenced by growth rates in both pH treatments at the higher temperature treatment that were not significantly different from the control treatment. The impact of low pH at current temperature on scallop growth suggests that the upwelling could increase the time required for scallops to reach marketable size. Mortality of farmed scallops is discussed in relation to our observations of multiple environmental stressors in this upwelling-influenced area.
Address [Lagos, Nelson A.; Benitez, Samanta] Univ Santo Tomas, Fac Ciencias, Ctr Invest & Innovac Cambio Climat, Santiago 8370003, Chile, Email: nlagoss@santotomas.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Inter-Research Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1869-215x ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000377605600030 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 630
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Author Markou, G.; Genco, F.
Title Seismic assessment of small modular reactors: NuScale case study for the 8.8 Mw earthquake in Chile Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Nuclear Engineering And Design Abbreviated Journal Nucl. Eng. Des.
Volume 342 Issue Pages 176-204
Keywords Small Modular Reactors; Chile 2050 energy policy; 3D Detailed Finite Element Modeling; Seismic resistance; Soil-Structure Interaction; Reinforced concrete
Abstract Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy production sustainability is a paramount of Chile's 2050 energy policy. This though, is difficult to achieve without some degree of nuclear power involvement, given that the geography of the country consists of many areas that are practically off-grid, whereas cannot be developed and financially exploited due to the lack of basic commodities such as water and electricity. Recently small modular reactors (SMRs) have gained lots of attention by both researchers and world policy makers for their promised capabilities of enhanced safety systems, affordable costs and competitive scalability. SMRs can be located in remote areas and at this time are being actively developed in Argentina, USA, Brazil, Russia, China, South Korea, Japan, India and South Africa. Chile's 2010 earthquake and Fukushima's 2011 nuclear disaster have increased significantly both the population's fear and opposition to Nuclear Power Energy for the possible consequences of radiation on the lives of people. This paper aims to study the seismic resistance of a typical nuclear structure, being at time proposed in Small Modular Reactors, by using earthquake conditions typically seen in Chile. Since many designs are under study, a NuScale reactor from USA is analyzed under these extreme loading conditions. The major advantages of the NuScale reactor are in the power scalability (it can go from 1 to 12 reactor cores producing from 60 to 720 MWe), limited nuclear fuel concentration, modules allocated below grade and high strength steel containments fully immersed in water. The cooling effect beyond Design Basis Accident is ensured indefinitely, which induces a significant safety factor in the case of an accident. For the purpose of this study a detailed 3D detailed structural model was developed, reproducing the NuScale reactor's reinforced concrete framing system, where nonlinear analyses was performed to assess the overall mechanical response of the structure. The framing system has been tested under high seismic excitations typically seen in Chile (Mw > 8.0), showing high resistance and capability to cope with the developed forces due to its design. Based on a Soil-Structure Interaction analysis, it was also found that the NuScale framing system manages to maintain a low-stress level at the interaction surface between the foundation and the soil, where the structural system was found to be able to withstand significant earthquake loads. Finally, further investigation is deemed necessary in order to study the potential damages of the structure in the case of other hazards such as tsunami events, blast loads, etc.
Address [Markou, George] Univ Pretoria, Dept Civil Engn, Pretoria, South Africa, Email: george.markou@up.ac.za;
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Science Sa Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0029-5493 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000454924700016 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 968
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Author Nasirov, S.; Agostini, C.A.
Title Mining experts' perspectives on the determinants of solar technologies adoption in the Chilean mining industry Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews Abbreviated Journal Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev.
Volume 95 Issue Pages 194-202
Keywords Mining industry; Energy challenges; Solar energy; Chile
Abstract The energy demand in Chile arises mostly from mining, its largest industry that accounts for about 35% of total electricity consumption. Energy generation to satisfy this demand depends completely on imported fossil fuels. As a result, the mining industry faces several energy related challenges. In particular, the cost and environmental impact of fuel sources are threatening the competitiveness of the industry and urge for new developments. In that regard, the importance of using clean and cost-competitive renewable energy sources has increased significantly in Chile and several government policies helped to increase the investment in them. The impact has been particularly large in the development of solar energy in the northern part of the country, where almost all mines are located. In fact, the country has become one of the largest solar markets in Latin America thanks to its abundant solar resources, favorable market conditions, and successful policy reforms. Solar energy then, could play a significant role as an alternative to satisfy the mining industry's energy demand offering a broad range of technological solutions. This study examines the key issues – barriers and drivers-influencing the adoption of solar technologies in the Chilean mining industry from the perspective of mining actors. As a result of the analysis the paper also provides a scope for appropriate policy interventions.
Address [Nasirov, Shahriyar] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Ave Diagonal Torres 2640, Santiago 7941169, Chile, Email: shahriyar.nasirov@uai.cl;
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1364-0321 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000441614300013 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 894
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Author Nasirov, S.; Agostini, C.; Silva, C.; Caceres, G.
Title Renewable energy transition: a market-driven solution for the energy and environmental concerns in Chile Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Clean Technologies And Environmental Policy Abbreviated Journal Clean Technol. Environ. Policy
Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 3-12
Keywords Energy transition; Energy policy; Renewable energy technologies; Chile
Abstract Chile is undergoing a remarkable energy matrix transition to renewable energy. Renewable energies are expanding extraordinarily fast, exceeding earlier predictions. As a result, the country is expected to meet its 2025 goal of generating 20% of its electricity from renewable energy sources quite before. Chile has become one of the first countries in the world with subsidy-free markets, where renewable projects compete directly with other conventional sources. Favorable market conditions and successful policy reforms were keys to fostering this renewable energy development. Although the country has achieved a substantial growth in renewable energy investment in a relatively short period of time, this optimism should be treated with caution. A successful transition requires a combination of a clear decision making, persistent and consistent government policies, and a clear commitment to tackling challenges to accommodate renewable energy in the power system. In this context, this paper analyses the Chilean renewable industry and the required government policies to succeed in this transition. For this purpose, we identify several critical factors that have attracted and that could attract investment to the renewable energy sector and propose key recommendations to effectively address the major challenges faced for the future development of the industry.
Address [Nasirov, Shahriyar; Silva, Carlos; Caceres, Gustavo] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Ave Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Santiago 7941169, Chile, Email: shahriyar.nasirov@uai.cl;
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1618-954x ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000419770700002 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 823
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Author Nasirov, S.; Agostini, C.A.; Silva, C.
Title An assessment of the implementation of renewable energy sources in the light of concerns over Chilean policy objectives Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Energy Sources Part B-Economics Planning And Policy Abbreviated Journal Energy Sources Part B
Volume 12 Issue 8 Pages 715-721
Keywords Chile; MCDA; policy objectives; renewable energy; sensitivity analysis
Abstract In recent years, the development of renewable energies in the electricity market in Chile has gained significant attention as a key alternative for energy sources diversification and meeting three key policy objectives: energy availability, environmental protection, and social-economic development. This study aims to assess various renewable energy sources in order to select suitable sources to accomplish the different policy goals in a country like Chile. For this purpose, a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method is employed to evaluate the relative importance of policy objectives. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to build various different policy scenarios measuring the impact of variations on the current weights of the decision criteria. The results show that solar, wind, and small hydro are the preferred sources in the Chilean renewable energy portfolio, maximizing the objective of meeting the three policy goals at the same time.
Address [Nasirov, Shahriyar; Silva, Carlos] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Ave Diagonal Torres 2640, Santiago, Chile, Email: shahriyar.nasirov@uai.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Taylor & Francis Inc Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1556-7249 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000407930900006 Approved no
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 757
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