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Author Acuna, M.; Eaton, L.; Cifuentes, L. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Genetic variants of the paraoxonases (PON1 and PON2) in the Chilean population Type
  Year 2004 Publication Human Biology Abbreviated Journal Hum. Biol.  
  Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 299-305  
  Keywords PON1; PON2; paraoxonase; Chilean population; Amerindian admixture; coronary artery disease  
  Abstract We estimated the frequencies of PON1 and PON2 variants (linked genes) in two hospital samples taken from the northern (San Jose Hospital, SJH) and eastern (Clinica Las Condes, CLC) parts of Santiago, Chile, using the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease digestion. The two hospital samples have different degrees of Amerindian admixture (SJH, 34.5%; CLC, 15.9%), which is reflected in the observed frequencies of the PON1*B allele (SJH, 43.1%; CLC, 33.7%) and the PON2*S allele (SJH, 86.3%; CLC, 77.6%); both allele frequencies are significantly different between samples. The frequencies of the combined PON1-PON2 genotypes *A/*B-*C/*C, *A/*B-*S/*S, and *B/*B-*S/*S and of the haplotypes PON*A,C and PON*B,S were significantly different between the SJH and CLC groups. None of the genotype frequencies deviated significantly from those predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equation. No linkage disequilibrium was found between the PON1 alleles and any of the PON2 alleles in either group (all p > 0.05). In our samples 38.52% (SJH) and 26.25% (CLC) of chromosomes must have the haplotype PON*B,S, presumed to be related to the risk of coronary artery disease. Twenty-four of 193 (12.4%) SJH individuals and 7 of 122 (5.7%) CLC individuals were homozygotes for this haplotype. Finally, our data indicate ethnic-group-dependent genetic differences in the vulnerability to toxic organophosphorus.  
  Address Univ Chile, Genet Program, ICBM, Santiago 7, Chile  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wayne State Univ Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0018-7143 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000223036000009 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 36  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Agostini, C.A.; Armijo, F.A.; Silva, C.; Nasirov, S. doi  openurl
  Title The role of frequency regulation remuneration schemes in an energy matrix with high penetration of renewable energy Type
  Year 2021 Publication Renewable Energy Abbreviated Journal Renew. Energy  
  Volume 171 Issue Pages 1097-1114  
  Keywords Renewable energy; Frequency control; Ancillary services; Chile  
  Abstract Renewable energies (RE) in Chile and around the world have experienced outstanding growth in recent years. However, RE technologies such as solar photovoltaic and wind generate an imbalance between generation (offer) and consumption (demand) because of their intermittent and variable nature. Moreover, RE & rsquo;s natural variability makes it necessary for conventional technologies to play a significant role in adjusting for the imbalance in the electric system frequency. As variable RE penetration grows, the need for frequency regulation will increase and, depending on how those higher costs are financed, this could lead to a disincentive to invest in conventional plants that provide that service. In this paper we study the impact of increased photovoltaic energy penetration, the leading RE in Chile, on the profitability of different conventional generation technologies. Specifically, we analyze the role that the frequency control remuneration mechanism has on that impact. For this purpose, four different solar photovoltaic penetration scenarios are simulated in Chile & rsquo;s Northern System, comparing two payment criteria for frequency regulation services: i) a cost-based pricing system whose payments relate to the incurred costs and ii) a market-based pricing system where the marginal cost of providing the services is paid. The results show that as installed photovoltaic capacity increases, the average marginal cost of energy (operation cost) decreases due to a displacement of more expensive power plants, but at the same time, investment cost may increase. In the long run, contract prices change as a result of falling operational costs and rising investment cost, resulting in changes in the profitability of all technologies. Finally, while both cost-based and market-based systems reward the ability to regulate frequency, the technologies performing the regulation receive different payments for the service, affecting both their profitability and the incentives for investment.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-1481 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000637528400005 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1368  
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Author Agostini, C.A.; Guzman, A.M.; Nasirov, S.; Silva, C. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title A surplus based framework for cross-border electricity trade in South America Type
  Year 2019 Publication Energy Policy Abbreviated Journal Energy Policy  
  Volume 128 Issue Pages 673-684  
  Keywords Electricity regulation; Import/export of electricity; South America; Chile  
  Abstract The South American region has experienced a steady increase in its demand for electricity and faces several challenges in the development of the electricity sector. Among them, high fluctuations in hydro generation, high and volatile prices of fossil fuels, and environmental and social impacts associated to energy activities. Strengthening cooperation for cross-border electricity trade is considered a sustainable alternative for addressing these challenges. For the expansion of electricity trade among countries within the region, both infrastructure and a regulation that defines the conditions of the electric power exchanges between countries are required. A good regulatory framework would allow all market players to have access to the commercialization of energy with other countries in the region, guarantee that the treatment of exchanges is non-discriminatory, and maintain the efficiency, cost effectiveness and security characteristics operation of all electricity systems. In this context, this paper proposes a framework with the basic setting conditions for the import and export of energy from the “surplus” available for exchange. The empirical analysis of the regulatory proposal, based on simulations, shows that the exchange of energy from Chile with its neighboring countries is feasible in a clear and transparent manner, reducing the marginal costs of energy and the total cost of operation, keeping the average cost of generation relatively constant.  
  Address [Agostini, Claudio A.] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Sch Govt, Santiago, Chile, Email: Claudio.agostini@uai.cl;  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Sci Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0301-4215 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000463688800064 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 995  
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Author Agostini, C.A.; Nasirov, S.; Silva, C. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Solar PV Planning Toward Sustainable Development in Chile: Challenges and Recommendations Type
  Year 2016 Publication Journal Of Environment & Development Abbreviated Journal J. Environ. Dev.  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 25-46  
  Keywords solar energy; sustainability; development; Chile; policy challenges  
  Abstract Over the past decade, the promotion of renewable energy projects in Chile, especially solar energy projects, has become increasingly important, as energy dependence from foreign fossil fuels has increased and concerns regarding climate change continue to grow, posing a significant challenge to the local economy. Even though recent developments toward a more sustainable energy matrix in Chile have significantly increased the investment in the solar energy sector, social and environmental fragilities, combined with the lack of well-functioning institutions and the historical marginalization of indigenous communities who have been affected by several energy projects, result in gradually increasing conflictive situations. Unless proper mechanisms are designed and implemented to rapidly and correctly address these challenges, Chile could miss the opportunities that solar energy projects can provide to the development of its communities and to the economic growth of its regions. This article studies solar photovoltaics planning in Chile, focusing on the recent developments and the main challenges ahead, and proposes policy recommendations for effectively addressing these challenges.  
  Address [Agostini, Claudio A.] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Econ, Sch Govt, Santiago, Chile, Email: claudio.agostini@uai.cl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Sage Publications Inc Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1070-4965 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000370428400002 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 588  
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Author Agostini, C.A.; Silva, C.; Nasirov, S. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Failure of Energy Mega-Projects in Chile: A Critical Review from Sustainability Perspectives Type
  Year 2017 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 9 Issue 6 Pages 17 pp  
  Keywords energy mega-projects; Chile; environmental evaluation; sustainability  
  Abstract A number of successive energy crises over the last decade due to the lack of a balanced investment planning in the energy sector in Chile has led to a strong dependence on external sources and also doubled energy prices in the country, thus posing a significant challenge to the local economy. With the purpose of reaching long-term goals while simultaneously addressing short-term urgencies, Chile seeks to build a consistent and integrated energy policy in order to attract investment in the sector. Despite an overall attractive investment climate and encouraging market conditions in the country, the energy sector has been adversely affected, in particular, by the communities' opposition to mega-projects based on their expected environmental and social impacts. The study highlights recent experiences of energy generation mega-projects in terms of addressing aspects of sustainability. Based on these experiences, it discusses underdeveloped role of environmental evaluations and the main regulatory challenges ahead, recommending then public policies to effectively address these challenges.  
  Address [Agostini, Claudio A.] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Sch Govt, Ave Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Santiago 7941169, Chile, Email: claudio.agostini@uai.cl;  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Mdpi Ag Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000404133200195 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 745  
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Author Araya-Letelier, G.; Parra, P.F.; Lopez-Garcia, D.; Garcia-Valdes, A.; Candia, G.; Lagos, R. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Collapse risk assessment of a Chilean dual wall-frame reinforced concrete office building Type
  Year 2019 Publication Engineering Structures Abbreviated Journal Eng. Struct.  
  Volume 183 Issue Pages 770-779  
  Keywords Collapse assessment; Chilean code-conforming building; Incremental dynamic analyses; Seismic hazard models  
  Abstract Several code-conforming reinforced concrete buildings were severely damaged during the 2010 moment magnitude (M-w) 8.8 Chile earthquake, raising concerns about their real collapse margin. Although critical updates were introduced into the Chilean design codes after 2010, guidelines for collapse risk assessment of Chilean buildings remain insufficient. This study evaluates the collapse potential of a typical dual system (shear walls and moment frames) office building in Santiago. Collapse fragility functions were obtained through incremental dynamic analyses using a state-of-the-art finite element model of the building. Site-specific seismic hazard curves were developed, which explicitly incorporated epistemic uncertainty, and combined with the collapse fragility functions to estimate the mean annual frequency of collapse (lambda(c)) values and probabilities of collapse in 50-years (P-c(50)). Computed values of lambda(c) and P-c(50) were on the order of 10(-5)-10(-4), and 0.1-0.7%, respectively, consistent with similar studies developed for buildings in the US. The results also showed that the deaggregation of lambda(c) was controlled by small to medium earthquake intensities and that different models of the collapse fragility functions and hazard curves had a non-negligible effect on lambda(c) and P-c(50), and thus, propagation of uncertainty in risk assessment problems must be adequately taken into account.  
  Address [Araya-Letelier, G.] Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Escuela Construcc Civil, Ave Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile, Email: gerardo.araya@uc.cl;  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Sci Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0141-0296 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000462690000055 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 994  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Arriagada, R.; Aldunce, P.; Blanco, G.; Ibarra, C.; Moraga, P.; Nahuelhual, L.; O'Ryan, R.; Urquiza, A.; Gallardo, L. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Climate change governance in the anthropocene: emergence of polycentrism in Chile Type
  Year 2018 Publication Elementa-Science Of The Anthropocene Abbreviated Journal Elementa-Sci. Anthrop.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 13 pp  
  Keywords Climate change; Governance; Polycentrism; Public consultation; Chile  
  Abstract Multilateral efforts are essential to an effective response to climate change, but individual nations define climate action policy by translating local and global objectives into adaptation and mitigation actions. We propose a conceptual framework to explore opportunities for polycentric climate governance, understanding polycentricity as a property that encompasses the potential for coordinating multiple centers of semiautonomous decision-making. We assert that polycentrism engages a diverse array of public and private actors for a more effective approach to reducing the threat of climate change. In this way, polycentrism may provide an appropriate strategy for addressing the many challenges of climate governance in the Anthropocene. We review two Chilean case studies: Chile's Nationally Determined Contribution on Climate Change and the Chilean National Climate Change Action Plan. Our examination demonstrates that Chile has included a diversity of actors and directed significant financial resources to both processes. The central government coordinated both of these processes, showing the key role of interventions at higher jurisdictional levels in orienting institutional change to improve strategic planning and better address climate change. Both processes also provide some evidence of knowledge co-production, while at the same time remaining primarily driven by state agencies and directed by technical experts. Efforts to overcome governance weaknesses should focus on further strengthening existing practices for climate change responses, establishing new institutions, and promoting decision-making that incorporates diverse social actors and multiple levels of governance. In particular, stronger inclusion of local level actors provides an opportunity to enhance polycentric modes of governance and improve climate change responses. Fully capitalizing on this opportunity requires establishing durable communication channels between different levels of governance.  
  Address [Arriagada, Rodrigo; Aldunce, Paulina; Blanco, Gustavo; Ibarra, Cecilia; Moraga, Pilar; Nahuelhual, Laura; O'Ryan, Raul; Urquiza, Anahi; Gallardo, Laura] Ctr Climate & Resilience Res, CR2, FONDAP15110009, Santiago, Chile, Email: rarriagadac@uc.cl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Univ California Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2325-1026 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000450637500001 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 929  
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Author Caceres, G.; Nasirov, S.; Zhang, H.L.; Araya-Letelier, G. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Residential Solar PV Planning in Santiago, Chile: Incorporating the PM10 Parameter Type
  Year 2015 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 422-440  
  Keywords PV solar panels; efficiency; LCOE; dust; PM10; Santiago; Chile  
  Abstract This paper addresses an economic study of the installation of photovoltaic (PV) solar panels for residential power generation in Santiago, Chile, based on the different parameters of a PV system, such as efficiency. As a performance indicator, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) was used, which indicates the benefit of the facility vs. the current cost of electrical energy. In addition, due to a high level of airborne dusts typically associated with PM10, the effect of the dust deposition on PV panels' surfaces and the effect on panel performance are examined. Two different scenarios are analyzed: on-grid PV plants and off-grid PV plants.  
  Address [Caceres, Gustavo; Nasirov, Shahriyar; Araya-Letelier, Gerardo] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Santiago 7941169, Chile, Email: gustavo.caceres@uai.cl;  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Mdpi Ag Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000348399300020 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 451  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Campos-Valdes, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, E.; Quiroga, MM; Pereira, J.; Duran, FL. doi  openurl
  Title The Impact of Candidates' Profile and Campaign Decisions in Electoral Results: A Data Analytics Approach Type
  Year 2021 Publication Mathematics Abbreviated Journal Mathematics  
  Volume 9 Issue 8 Pages 902  
  Keywords Chilean parliamentary election; candidate profiles; campaign efforts; territorial deployment  
  Abstract In recent years, a wide range of techniques has been developed to predict electoral results and to measure the influence of different factors in these results. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the political profile of candidates (characterized by personal and political features) and their campaign effort (characterized by electoral expenditure and by territorial deployment strategies retrieved from social networks activity) on the electoral results. This analysis is carried out by using three of the most frequent data analyitcs algorithms in the literature. For our analysis, we consider the 2017 Parliamentary elections in Chile, which are the first elections after a major reform of the electoral system, that encompassed a transition from a binomial to a proportional system, a modification of the districts' structure, an increase in the number of seats, and the requirement of gender parity in the lists of the different coalitions. The obtained results reveal that, regardless of the political coalition, the electoral experience of candidates, in particular in the same seat they are running for (even when the corresponding district is modified), is by large the most influential factor to explain the electoral results. However, the attained results show that the influence of other features, such as campaign expenditures, depends on the political coalition. Additionally, by means of a simulation procedure, we show how different levels of territorial deployment efforts might impact on the results of candidates. This procedure could be used by parties and coalitions when planning their campaign strategies.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2227-7390 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000644524000001 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1377  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cataldo-Born, M.; Araya-Letelier, G.; Pabon, C. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Obstacles and motivations for earthbag social housing in Chile: energy, environment, economic and codes implications Type
  Year 2016 Publication Revista De La Construccion Abbreviated Journal Rev. Constr.  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 17-26  
  Keywords Earthbag buildings; chilean social housing; environmental performance; economic performance; building code  
  Abstract Chile presents a social housing deficit that needs to be addressed with solutions that increase habitability and environmental benefits. This paper addresses the benefits of implementing earthbag buildings as an option to mitigate the existing social housing deficit in Chile. A literature review presents details on the use of earthbag buildings around the world, and motivations and obstacles for implementing earthbag buildings in Chile. In particular, a case study was simulated to compare an earthbag social house to a reinforced brick masonry social house in terms of environmental and economic performances such as CO2 emissions, energy and costs. It is concluded that both alternatives generate similar CO2 emissions, but the earthbag social house can save up to 20% of energy during its life cycle. In economic terms, the earthbag social house generates savings of 50% and 38% for initial investment and life cycle cost, respectively, compared to the reinforced brick masonry social house. The implementation of earthbag social housing projects would be encouraged by the development of a Chilean building code for earthbag design that provides guidance on the safe use of this technique in a seismic country.  
  Address [Cataldo-Born, Matias] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Santiago, Chile, Email: matias.cataldo2007@alumnos.uai.cl;  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Escuela Construccion Civil Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0718-915x ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000395667400002 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 719  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cordero, R.; Mascareno, A.; Henriquez, P.A.; Ruz, G.A. doi  openurl
  Title Drawing constitutional boundaries: A digital historical analysis of the writing process of Pinochet's 1980 authoritarian constitution Type
  Year 2022 Publication Historical Methods Abbreviated Journal Hist. Methods  
  Volume Early Access Issue Pages  
  Keywords Chile's 1980 constitution; conceptual boundaries; constitution-making; constitutional history; digital text analysis  
  Abstract Drawing conceptual boundaries is one of the defining features of constitution-making processes. These historically situated operations of boundary making are central to the definition of what counts as “constitutional” in a political community. In this article, we study the operations of conceptual delimitation performed by the Constitutional Commission (1973-1978) that drafted the 1980 Chilean Constitution, the trademark of Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship. Using the eleven volumes of the Commission's Official Records as our textual material (10,915 pages and 80,005 distinct words), we apply vector semantics, spectral clustering and bigram graph-based analysis to explore conceptual boundaries and the behavior of specific keywords shaping the space of constitutional meanings. Our results identify the ways in which the Commission defines the normative horizon of the new social and political order by transforming old semantic references into a renewed conceptual framework. This analysis shows the immanent relations between political action and conceptual elaboration that underlie the creation of constitutional texts, as well as the potential of computational methods for the study of constitutional history and constitution-making processes.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0161-5440 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000788880300001 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1571  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Corral, N.; Anrique, N.; Fernandes, D.; Parrado, C.; Caceres, G. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Power, placement and LEC evaluation to install CSP plants in northern Chile Type
  Year 2012 Publication Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews Abbreviated Journal Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev.  
  Volume 16 Issue 9 Pages 6678-6685  
  Keywords CSP plant; Solar radiation; Northern Chile; LEC; Power plant capacity; Back-up and TES system; Placement evaluation  
  Abstract Chile is expecting a 5.4% growth in energy consumption per year until 2030, requiring new and better solutions for the upward trend of its electricity demand. This state leads to select and study one of the potential alternatives for electricity generation: concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. Such renewable technology found in Chile a very favorable condition. Recent researches indicate Atacama Desert as one of the best regions for solar energy worldwide, having an average radiation higher than in places where CSP plants are currently implemented, e.g. Spain and USA. The aim of this study is to present an analysis of levelized energy cost (LEC) for different power capacities of CSP plants placed in distinct locations in northern Chile. The results showed that CSP plants can be implemented in Atacama Desert with LECs around 19 (sic)US$/kWh when a gas-fired backup and thermal energy storage (TES) systems are fitted. This value increases to approximately 28 (sic)US$/kWh if there is no backup system. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  
  Address [Corral, Nicolas; Anrique, Nicolas; Fernandes, Dalila; Parrado, Cristobal; Caceres, Gustavo] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Santiago, Chile, Email: n.anrique@ieee.org  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1364-0321 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000312822300012 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 258  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gallardo, L.; Barraza, F.; Ceballos, A.; Galleguillos, M.; Huneeus, N.; Lambert, F.; Ibarra, C.; Munizaga, M.; O'Ryan, R.; Osses, M.; Tolvett, S.; Urquiza, A.; Veliz, K.D. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Evolution of air quality in Santiago: The role of mobility and lessons from the science-policy interface Type
  Year 2018 Publication Elementa-Science Of The Anthropocene Abbreviated Journal Elementa-Sci. Anthrop.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 23 pp  
  Keywords Air quality; mobility; urbanization; climate mitigation; policy-science interface; Chile  
  Abstract Worldwide, urbanization constitutes a major and growing driver of global change and a distinctive feature of the Anthropocene. Thus, urban development paths present opportunities for technological and societal transformations towards energy efficiency and decarbonization, with benefits for both greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollution mitigation. This requires a better understanding of the intertwined dynamics of urban energy and land use, emissions, demographics, governance, and societal and biophysical processes. In this study, we address several characteristics of urbanization in Santiago (33.5 degrees S, 70.5 degrees W, 500 m a.s.l.), the capital city of Chile. Specifically, we focus on the multiple links between mobility and air quality, describe the evolution of these two aspects over the past 30 years, and review the role scientific knowledge has played in policy-making. We show evidence of how technological measures (e.g., fuel quality, three-way catalytic converters, diesel particle filters) have been successful in decreasing coarse mode aerosol (PM10) concentrations in Santiago despite increasing urbanization (e.g., population, motorization, urban sprawl). However, we also show that such measures will likely be insufficient if behavioral changes do not achieve an increase in the use of public transportation. Our investigation seeks to inform urban development in the Anthropocene, and our results may be useful for other developing countries, particularly in Latin America and the Caribbean where more than 80% of the population is urban.  
  Address [Gallardo, Laura; Barraza, Francisco; Ceballos, Andres; Galleguillos, Mauricio; Huneeus, Nicolas; Lambert, Fabrice; Ibarra, Cecilia; Munizaga, Marcela; O'Ryan, Raul; Osses, Mauricio; Tolvett, Sebastian; Urquiza, Anahi; Veliz, Karina D.] Ctr Climate & Resilience Res CR2, FONDAP15110009, Santiago, Region Metropol, Chile, Email: lgallard@u.uchile.cl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Univ California Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2325-1026 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000431309200001 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 850  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Garmendia, M.L.; Matus, O.; Mondschein, S.; Kusanovic, J.P. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Gestational weight gain recommendations for Chilean women: a mathematical optimization approach Type
  Year 2018 Publication Public Health Abbreviated Journal Public Health  
  Volume 163 Issue Pages 80-86  
  Keywords Pregnancy; Weight gain; Obesity; Pregnancy high risk; Chile  
  Abstract Objectives: We examined if the guidelines for gestational weight gain (GWG) proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) are the most suitable for Chilean women. Study design: Secondary analysis of records of single full-term births at the Dr. Sotero del Rio Hospital, Santiago, Chile, during 2003-2012 (n = 62,579). Methods: From clinical records, we obtained data regarding maternal age, height, prepregnancy and at delivery weights, pathologies during pregnancy such as gestational diabetes (GDM) and pre-eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, and number of infants born small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA). We formulated a mathematical model (MM) to determine the GWG range that maximizes the likelihood of a healthy pregnancy (HP) if the recommendation is followed. We defined an HP as one where the mother has no complications such as pre-eclampsia, GDM, SGA, or LGA. Results: Forty-six percent of women had prepregnancy overweight or obesity. The prevalence of GDM, pre-eclampsia, SGA, and LGA were 3%, 1.2%, 9%, and 12%, respectively. An HP was present in 76% of pregnancies, 79% in the underweight group, 79% in normal weight group, 74% in the overweight group, and 67% in obese women. The GWG recommendations given by the MM (14-20 kg for underweight, 6-20 kg for normal weight, 9 -11 kg for overweight, and 6-7 kg for obese) led to higher probabilities of achieving an HP than the ones obtained with the IOM recommendations. Conclusion: The adoption of GWG recommendations based on characteristics of the Chilean population might lead to better short- and long-term health results for pregnant women. (C) 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  
  Address [Garmendia, M. L.] Univ Chile, Inst Nutr & Food Technol, Avda Libano 5524, Santiago, Chile, Email: susana.mondschein@uai.cl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher W B Saunders Co Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0033-3506 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000446680400014 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 918  
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Author Genco, F.; Genco, G. doi  openurl
  Title Nuclear desalination in Chile: a competitive solution Type
  Year 2019 Publication Desalination And Water Treatment Abbreviated Journal Desalin. Water Treat.  
  Volume 140 Issue Pages 24-34  
  Keywords Small modular reactors; Chile 2050 energy policy; Nuclear desalination; IAEA DEEP 5 software  
  Abstract Renewable energy sources are considered the main drive for developing at least 70% of the total energy in Chile by 2050. All major international greenhouse gases reduction agreements include growth of renewable energy sources and nuclear power as the only ways to significantly reduce emissions by the decade 2040-50. Chile's energy production matrix still relies heavily on fossil fuels, making very difficult to match the goal targeted by international agreements. For these reasons, the possibility of using nuclear power plants is considered. Small modular reactors (SMRs) in particular seems particularly suitable for a country like Chile for many reasons: SMRs are scalable and can provide energy in remote locations with no or limited grids (Atacama desert); SMRs can cope easily with future demands for expansion, thanks to their modularity; SMRs are cost effective and use all the latest developments in safety. This paper examines, using IAEA DEEP 5 economic software, the costs of nuclear desalinated water produced for the Chilean mining industry. Comparisons with respect to existing fossil fuels solutions show that the final cost is very competitive and allow for significant reduction of CO2 emissions.  
  Address [Genco, Filippo] Adolfo Ibanez Univ, Fac Engn & Sci, Av Las Torres 2640,Edificio E, Santiago, Chile, Email: filippo.genco@uai.cl;  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Desalination Publ Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1944-3994 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000458914100004 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 981  
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Author Genco, F.; Gengo, G. doi  openurl
  Title Selection of energy matrix sources in Chile using a fuzzy logic decision approach Type
  Year 2021 Publication Energy Systems Abbreviated Journal Energy Syst.  
  Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 411-429  
  Keywords Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM); Chile 2050 Energy Policy; VIKOR method; Nuclear power; Fuzzy logic; Small modular reactors  
  Abstract Chile's 2050 energy policy ultimate goals are to produce a sustainable model of economic growth respectful of the environment where energy is produced efficiently and reliably. Renewable energy sources are considered the main drive for developing by 2050 at least 70% of the total energy in Chile. This study aims to provide a quantitative analysis for the selection of the most sustainable energy production methods using the compromise ranking method (VIKOR) that uses maximum group utility for the majority and a minimum of individual regret for the opponent. Since all evaluations are provided via intervals, the possible degree theory is used to compare them. Nine major criteria are critically used for this purpose and prioritized using analytical hierarchical process (AHP). Since Chile's energy production matrix still relies heavily on fossil fuels with major concerns of GHG emissions, all major potential energy sources in Chile are considered including ocean energy in addition to nuclear energy. This study shows that biomasses are the best compromise solution and that traditional and modern nuclear energy plants score consistently better than solar power. Large hydro power plants rank very high but in light of the social opposition present in the country, they might not be easy to build as hoped. Ocean power is far superior to geothermal energy and comparable to wind power and for this reason it should be considered together with nuclear power for the future Chilean energy matrix.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1868-3967 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000639105200005 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1488  
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Author Girard, A.; Roberts, C.; Simon, F.; Ordonez, J. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Solar electricity production and taxi electrical vehicle conversion in Chile Type
  Year 2019 Publication Journal Of Cleaner Production Abbreviated Journal J. Clean Prod.  
  Volume 210 Issue Pages 1261-1269  
  Keywords Electric vehicle; Public transport; CO2 emissions; Solar charging station; Chile  
  Abstract Carbon emissions from the Chilean public transport sector have doubled between 2000 and 2013. Thus, the need to find alternative clean-air solutions is becoming increasingly critical. With this in mind, this paper addresses a solution to the aforementioned problem by studying the conversion of both taxis and “colectivos” (public taxis with defined routes) into electric vehicles (EV) to be used in the Chilean public transport sector. In Chile, 80% of taxis are Nissan V16s, meaning that all of these vehicles will be replaced and end up in landfills within the next 5-8 years. This study presents an option to give a second life to these vehicles, addressing environmental and financial issues. It compares emissions from the Nissan V16's conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) with an equivalent electric conversion prototype. Furthermore, it analyses the CO2 emissions from the EV that has been fully charged by the Chilean grid as well as one that has been charged by a solar photovoltaic system. A solar recharging station for EV taxis is designed, taking advantage of the high levels of solar radiation in Chile. The results show that EV conversion does not lead to real environmental benefits, in comparison to its ICE equivalent, when it is charged with the grid. However, the results also show a considerable decrease in cost and CO2 emissions per km travelled when using solar energy to charge the batteries. Future challenges include identifying solutions to cope with solar intermittence and minimizing CO2 emissions during periods of low radiation. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  
  Address [Girard, Aymeric] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Av Padre Hurtado 750, Altos Del Sporting, Vina Del Mar, Chile, Email: aymeric.girard@gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Sci Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000456762600114 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 975  
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Author Ibarra, C.; O'Ryan, R.; Silva, B. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Applying knowledge governance to understand the role of science in environmental regulation: The case of arsenic in Chile Type
  Year 2018 Publication Environmental Science & Policy Abbreviated Journal Environ. Sci. Policy  
  Volume 86 Issue Pages 115-124  
  Keywords Science-policy interface; Knowledge governance; Civic epistemology; Knowledge systems; Emergent policy fields; Arsenic regulation; Chile  
  Abstract The relationship between scientific knowledge and decision-making surrounding environmental issues is complex and represents a flourishing area of scholarship and practice. However, a sense of frustration persists regarding efforts to increase the use of science for decision-making. Regulations of copper smelter arsenic emissions developed in Chile during the 1990s represent a successful example of science informing policy making. The case involved production and use of local science in contrast to the common practice of copying international ambient standards. In this paper, we investigate arsenic regulation in Chile in the 1990s and focus on the role of the major science intervention during the process, project FONDEF 2-24. The case is examined through the lens of knowledge governance (van Kerkhoff and Pilbeam, 2017). This theoretically-oriented approach guides our critical reflection on the relationship between knowledge and policy making, taking into consideration the formal and informal rules that shape the intervention and the underlying social and cultural patterns. The success of the science intervention's influence on policy is better understood with such a perspective. We expand the knowledge governance approach by scrutinizing the relations of coherence between levels of analysis to assess their alignment. The approach could be helpful for studying other cases, particularly at times when a new field of policy is emerging.  
  Address [Ibarra, Cecilia; O'Ryan, Raul] Univ Chile, Ctr Climate & Resilience Res, CR2, Blanco 2002, Santiago, Chile, Email: cibarra@dgf.uchile.cl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Sci Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1462-9011 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000435052500011 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 1037  
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Author Lagos, M.; Caceres, C.W.; Lardies, M.A. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Geographic variation in acid- base balance of the intertidal crustacean Cyclograpsus cinereus ( Decapoda, Grapsidae) during air exposure Type
  Year 2014 Publication Journal Of The Marine Biological Association Of The United Kingdom Abbreviated Journal J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K.  
  Volume 94 Issue 1 Pages 159-165  
  Keywords emersion; latitudinal gradient; respiration; intertidal; Chile; lactate dehydrogenase; LDH; acidosis  
  Abstract In intertidal poikilotherms with wide geographic distribution, physiological variations are ubiquitous, due to phenotypic plasticity and/or individual geographic variation. Using the grapsid crab, Cyclograpsus cinereus as a study model, acclimatization differences in respiratory physiology were evaluated among populations along the Chilean coast, covering a latitudinal gradient of about 2000km. This species inhabits the supratidal zones and, therefore, is subject to constant immersion and emersion periods, producing physiological acidification due to CO2 retention, mainly in the branchial cavity. Individuals of six populations were collected along the coastline of Chile and were exposed to air for different time periods in the laboratory. The following parameters were measured: pH, Ca2+, Cl- and haemolymphatic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity. Populations from lower latitudes were significantly different from those from central and southern Chile, with a higher haemolymphatic pH variation and higher Ca2+ level, along with lower levels of Cl- and LDH enzyme activity. This indicates that the populations from lower latitudes, which are subject to higher air temperatures during emersion, have a higher homeostatic capacity during emersion periods than those of intermediate and higher latitudes. This response seems to be determined by genetic bases due to adaptation to the local environment.  
  Address [Lagos, Marcelo; Caceres, Cristian W.] Univ Catolica Ssma, Fac Ciencias, Dept Ecol, Concepcion, Chile, Email: marco.lardies@uai.cl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Cambridge Univ Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0025-3154 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000332452300016 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 376  
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Author Lagos, N.A.; Benitez, S.; Duarte, C.; Lardies, M.A.; Broitman, B.R.; Tapia, C.; Tapia, P.; Widdicombe, S.; Vargas, C.A. pdf  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of temperature and ocean acidification on shell characteristics of Argopecten purpuratus: implications for scallop aquaculture in an upwelling-influenced area Type
  Year 2016 Publication Aquaculture Environment Interactions Abbreviated Journal Aquac. Environ. Interact.  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages 357-370  
  Keywords Calcification; Shell growth; Scallop farming; Upwelling; Chile  
  Abstract Coastal upwelling regions already constitute hot spots of ocean acidification as naturally acidified waters are brought to the surface. This effect could be exacerbated by ocean acidification and warming, both caused by rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2. Along the Chilean coast, upwelling supports highly productive fisheries and aquaculture activities. However, during recent years, there has been a documented decline in the national production of the native scallop Argopecten purpuratus. We assessed the combined effects of temperature and pCO(2)-driven ocean acidification on the growth rates and shell characteristics of this species farmed under the natural influence of upwelling waters occurring in northern Chile (30 degrees S, Tongoy Bay). The experimental scenario representing current conditions (14 degrees C, pH similar to 8.0) were typical of natural values recorded in Tongoy Bay, whilst conditions representing the low pH scenario were typical of an adjacent upwelling area (pH similar to 7.6). Shell thickness, weight, and biomass were reduced under low pH (pH similar to 7.7) and increased temperature (18 degrees C) conditions. At ambient temperature (14 degrees C) and low pH, scallops showed increased shell dissolution and low growth rates. However, elevated temperatures ameliorated the impacts of low pH, as evidenced by growth rates in both pH treatments at the higher temperature treatment that were not significantly different from the control treatment. The impact of low pH at current temperature on scallop growth suggests that the upwelling could increase the time required for scallops to reach marketable size. Mortality of farmed scallops is discussed in relation to our observations of multiple environmental stressors in this upwelling-influenced area.  
  Address [Lagos, Nelson A.; Benitez, Samanta] Univ Santo Tomas, Fac Ciencias, Ctr Invest & Innovac Cambio Climat, Santiago 8370003, Chile, Email: nlagoss@santotomas.cl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Inter-Research Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1869-215x ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000377605600030 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 630  
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