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Author Lagos, N.A.; Benitez, S.; Grenier, C.; Rodriguez-Navarro, A.B.; Garcia-Herrera, C.; Abarca-Ortega, A.; Vivanco, J.F.; Benjumeda, I.; Vargas, C.A.; Duarte, C.; Lardies, M.A. doi  openurl
  Title Plasticity in organic composition maintains biomechanical performance in shells of juvenile scallops exposed to altered temperature and pH conditions Type
  Year 2021 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.  
  Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 24201  
  Keywords OCEAN ACIDIFICATION; ELEVATED-TEMPERATURE; COMPENSATORY MECHANISM; SEAWATER ACIDIFICATION; CLIMATE-CHANGE; IMPACTS; BIOMINERALIZATION; RESPONSES; MUSSELS; INTENSIFICATION  
  Abstract The exposure to environmental variations in pH and temperature has proven impacts on benthic ectotherms calcifiers, as evidenced by tradeoffs between physiological processes. However, how these stressors affect structure and functionality of mollusk shells has received less attention. Episodic events of upwelling of deep cold and low pH waters are well documented in eastern boundary systems and may be stressful to mollusks, impairing both physiological and biomechanical performance. These events are projected to become more intense, and extensive in time with ongoing global warming. In this study, we evaluate the independent and interactive effects of temperature and pH on the biomineral and biomechanical properties of Argopecten purpuratus scallop shells. Total organic matter in the shell mineral increased under reduced pH (similar to 7.7) and control conditions (pH similar to 8.0). The periostracum layer coating the outer shell surface showed increased protein content under low pH conditions but decreasing sulfate and polysaccharides content. Reduced pH negatively impacts shell density and increases the disorder in the orientation of calcite crystals. At elevated temperatures (18 degrees C), shell microhardness increased. Other biomechanical properties were not affected by pH/temperature treatments. Thus, under a reduction of 0.3 pH units and low temperature, the response of A. purpuratus was a tradeoff among organic compounds (biopolymer plasticity), density, and crystal organization (mineral plasticity) to maintain shell biomechanical performance, while increased temperature ameliorated the impacts on shell hardness. Biopolymer plasticity was associated with ecophysiological performance, indicating that, under the influence of natural fluctuations in pH and temperature, energetic constraints might be critical in modulating the long-term sustainability of this compensatory mechanism.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000731322900005 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1522  
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Author Martinez-Villalobos, C.; Neelin, J.D. doi  openurl
  Title Regionally high risk increase for precipitation extreme events under global warming Type
  Year 2023 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.  
  Volume 13 Issue Pages 5579  
  Keywords EL-NINO; HEAVY PRECIPITATION; FUTURE CHANGES; CLIMATE; MODEL; INTENSIFICATION; CONSTRAINT; SATELLITE; FREQUENCY; CMIP5  
  Abstract Daily precipitation extremes are projected to intensify with increasing moisture under global warming following the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relationship at about 7%/∘C

. However, this increase is not spatially homogeneous. Projections in individual models exhibit regions with substantially larger increases than expected from the CC scaling. Here, we leverage theory and observations of the form of the precipitation probability distribution to substantially improve intermodel agreement in the medium to high precipitation intensity regime, and to interpret projected changes in frequency in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6. Besides particular regions where models consistently display super-CC behavior, we find substantial occurrence of super-CC behavior within a given latitude band when the multi-model average does not require that the models agree point-wise on location within that band. About 13% of the globe and almost 25% of the tropics (30% for tropical land) display increases exceeding 2CC. Over 40% of tropical land points exceed 1.5CC. Risk-ratio analysis shows that even small increases above CC scaling can have disproportionately large effects in the frequency of the most extreme events. Risk due to regional enhancement of precipitation scale increase by dynamical effects must thus be included in vulnerability assessment even if locations are imprecise.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000983866100058 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1761  
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