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Author Bonassa, G.; Bolsan, A.C.; Hollas, C.E.; Venturin, B.; Candido, D.; Chini, A.; De Pra, M.C.; Antes, F.G.; Campos, J.L.; Kunz, A.
Title Organic carbon bioavailability: Is it a good driver to choose the best biological nitrogen removal process? Type
Year 2021 Publication Science Of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci. Total Environ.
Volume 786 Issue Pages 147390
Keywords Economic viability; Anammox-based process; Biodegradable organic carbon concentration; Nitrogen removal process; Nitrification; denitrification
Abstract Organic carbon can affect the biological nitrogen removal process since the Anammox, heterotrophic and denitrifying bacteria have different affinities and feedback in relation to carbon/nitrogen ratio. Therefore, we reviewed the wastewater carbon concentration, its biodegradability and bioavailability to choose the appropriate nitrogen removal process between conventional (nitrification-denitrification) and Anammox-based process (i.e. integrated with the partial nitritation, nitritation, simultaneous partial nitrification and denitrification or partial-denitrification). This review will cover: (i) strategies to choose the best nitrogen removal route according to the wastewater characteristics in relation to the organic matter bioavailability and biodegradability; (ii) strategies to efficiently remove nitrogen and the remaining carbon from effluent in anammox-based process and its operating cost; (iii) an economic analysis to determine the operational costs of two-units Anammox-based process when compared with the commonly applied one-unit Anammox system (partial-nitritation-Anammox). On this re-view, a list of alternatives are summarized and explained for different nitrogen and biodegradable organic carbon concentrations, which are the main factors to determine the best treatment process, based on operational and economic terms. In summary, it depends on the wastewater carbon biodegradability, which implies in the wastewater treatment cost. Thus, to apply the conventional nitrification/denitrification process a CODb/N ratio higher than 3.5 is required to achieve full nitrogen removal efficiency. For an economic point of view, according to the analysis the minimum CODb/gN for successful nitrogen removal by nitrification/denitrification is 5.8 g. If ratios lower than 3.5 are applied, for successfully higher nitrogen removal rates and the economic feasibility of the treatment, Anammox-based routes can be applied to the wastewater treatment plant.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000687095700013 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1459
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Author del Rio, A.V.; da Silva, T.; Martins, T.H.; Foresti, E.; Campos, J.L.; Mendez, R.; Mosquera-Corral, A.
Title Partial Nitritation-Anammox Granules: Short-Term Inhibitory Effects of Seven Metals on Anammox Activity Type
Year 2017 Publication Water Air And Soil Pollution Abbreviated Journal Water Air Soil Pollut.
Volume 228 Issue 11 Pages 9 pp
Keywords Ammonia oxidizing bacteria; Anammox; Granules; IC50; Nitrogen removal
Abstract The inhibitory effect of seven different metals on the specific anammox activity of granular biomass, collected from a single stage partial nitritation/anammox reactor, was evaluated. The concentration of each metal that led to a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 19.3 mg Cu+2/L, 26.9 mg Cr+2/L, 45.6 mg Pb+2/L, 59.1 mg Zn+2/L, 69.2 mg Ni+2/L, 174.6 mg Cd+2/L, and 175.8 mg Mn+2/L. In experiments performed with granules mechanically disintegrated (flocculent-like sludge), the IC50 for Cd+2 corresponded to a concentration of 93.1 mg Cd+2/L. These results indicate that the granular structure might act as a physical barrier to protect anammox bacteria from toxics. Furthermore, the presence of an external layer of ammonia oxidizing bacteria seems to mitigate the inhibitory effect of the metals, as the values of IC50 obtained in this study for anammox activity were higher than those previously reported for anammox granules. Additionally, the results obtained confirmed that copper is one of the most inhibitory metals for anammox activity and revealed that chromium, scarcely studied yet, has a similar potential inhibitory effect.
Address [del Rio, Angeles Val; Mendez, Ramon; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska] Univ Santiago de Compostela, Inst Technol, Dept Chem Engn, E-15782 Santiago De Compostela, Spain, Email: mangeles.val@usc.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0049-6979 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000415958200002 Approved
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 790
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Author Giustinianovich, E.A.; Campos, J.L.; Roeckel, M.D.
Title The presence of organic matter during autotrophic nitrogen removal: Problem or opportunity? Type
Year 2016 Publication Separation And Purification Technology Abbreviated Journal Sep. Purif. Technol.
Volume 166 Issue Pages 102-108
Keywords Anammox; Ammonia oxidation; Heterotrophic denitrification; Nitrogen removal; SNAD
Abstract The simultaneous nitrification, Anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process discovered six years ago is an adaptation of the autotrophic denitrification process that allows for treating nitrogen-rich wastewater streams with moderate amounts of organic carbon. Several authors have noted that it is possible to utilize organic carbon to promote nitrogen removal via the action of denitrifying microorganisms, which can remove the remnant nitrate produced by Anammox bacteria. Thus, SNAD systems can achieve nitrogen removal efficiencies higher than 89%, which is what is expected under autotrophic conditions. Three bacterial groups are responsible for SNAD reactions: ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) and heterotrophic bacteria (HB). Because HB will compete with AOB and AnAOB for oxygen and nitrite, respectively, the system should be operated in such way that a balance among the different bacterial populations is achieved. Here, the results reported in the literature are analyzed to define suitable characteristics of effluents for treatment and operational conditions to allow the SNAD process to be carried out with different types of technologies. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Address [Giustinianovich, Elisa A.; Roeckel, Marlene D.] Univ Concepcion, Dept Chem Engn, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile, Email: mroeckel@udec.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Science Bv Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1383-5866 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000376834400013 Approved
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 827
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Author Giustinianovich, E.A.; Campos, J.L.; Roeckel, M.D.; Estrada, A.J.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; del Rio, A.V.
Title Influence of biomass acclimation on the performance of a partial nitritation-anammox reactor treating industrial saline effluents Type
Year 2018 Publication Chemosphere Abbreviated Journal Chemosphere
Volume 194 Issue Pages 131-138
Keywords Anammox; Canning industry effluents; Nitrogen removal; Partial nitritation; Saline effluents
Abstract The performance of the partial nitritation/anammox processes was evaluated for the treatment of fish canning effluents. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was fed with industrial wastewater, with variable salt and total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentrations in the range of 1.75-18.00 g-NaCl L-1 and 112 – 267 mg-TAN L-1. The SBR operation was divided into two experiments: (A) progressive increase of salt concentrations from 1.75 to 1833 g-NaCl L-1; (B) direct application of high salt concentration (18 g-NaCl L-1). The progressive increase of NaCl concentration provoked the inhibition of the anammox biomass by up to 94% when 18 g-NaCl L-1 were added. The stable operation of the processes was achieved after 154 days when the nitrogen removal rate was 0.021 +/- 0.007 g N/L.d (corresponding to 30% of removal efficiency). To avoid the development of NOB activity at low salt concentrations and to stabilize the performance of the processes dissolved oxygen was supplied by intermittent aeration. A greater removal rate of 0.029 +/- 0.017 g-N L-1 d(-1) was obtained with direct exposure of the inoculum to 18 g-NaCl L-1 in less than 40 days. Also, higher specific activities than those from the inoculum were achieved for salt concentrations of 15 and 20 g-NaCl L-1 after 39 days of operation. This first study of the performance of the partial nitritation/anammox processes, to treat saline wastewaters, indicates that the acclimation period can be avoided to shorten the start-up period for industrial application purposes. Nevertheless, further experiments are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the processes. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Address [Giustinianovich, Elisa A.; Roeckel, Marlene D.] Univ Concepcion, Dept Chem Engn, Concepcion, Chile, Email: mangeles.val@usc.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0045-6535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000423890700017 Approved
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 817
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Author Morales, N.; del Rio, A.V.; Vazquez-Padin, J.R.; Gutierrez, R.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, R.; Icaram, P.; Rogalla, F.; Campos, J.L.; Mendez, R.; Mosquera-Corral, A.
Title Influence of dissolved oxygen concentration on the start-up of the anammox-based process: ELAN (R) Type
Year 2015 Publication Water Science And Technology Abbreviated Journal Water Sci. Technol.
Volume 72 Issue 4 Pages 520-527
Keywords anammox; autotrophic nitrogen removal; dissolved oxygen; granule; oxygen microprofiles
Abstract The anammox-based process ELAN (R) was started-up in two different sequencing batch reactor (SBR) pilot plant reactors treating municipal anaerobic digester supernatant. The main difference in the operation of both reactors was the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the bulk liquid. SBR-1 was started at a DO value of 0.4 mg O-2/L whereas SBR-2 was started at DO values of 3.0 mg O-2/L. Despite both reactors working at a nitrogen removal rate of around 0.6 g N/(L d), in SBR-1, granules represented only a small fraction of the total biomass and reached a diameter of 1.1 mm after 7 months of operation, while in SBR-2 the biomass was mainly composed of granules with an average diameter of 3.2 mm after the same operational period. Oxygen microelectrode profiling revealed that granules from SBR-2 where only fully penetrated by oxygen with DO concentrations of 8 mg O2/L while granules from SBR-1 were already oxygen penetrated at DO concentrations of 1 mg O2/L. In this way granules from SBR-2 performed better due to the thick layer of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, which accounted for up to 20% of all the microbial populations, which protected the anammox bacteria from non-suitable liquid media conditions.
Address [Morales, N.; Vazquez-Padin, J. R.; Gutierrez, R.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, R.; Icaram, P.; Rogalla, F.] Guillarei WWTP, FCC Aqualia, E-36720 Tui, Spain, Email: nicolas.morales.pereira@fcc.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iwa Publishing Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0273-1223 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000359387200003 Approved
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 518
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Author Pedrouso, A.; Aiartza, I.; Morales, N.; Vazquez-Padin, J.R.; Rogalla, F.; Campos, J.L.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; del Rio, A.V.
Title Pilot-scale ELAN (R) process applied to treat primary settled urban wastewater at low temperature via partial nitritation-anammox processes Type
Year 2018 Publication Separation And Purification Technology Abbreviated Journal Sep. Purif. Technol.
Volume 200 Issue Pages 94-101
Keywords Ananunox; Autotrophic nitrogen removal; Granular biomass; Mainstream; Partial nitritation
Abstract A single stage partial nitritation and anammox granular pilot scale reactor (600 L) was operated to treat primary settled sewage in an urban wastewater treatment plant. The fed wastewater contained low total nitrogen concentrations of 6-25 mg TN/L and the system operated without temperature control ranging from 18 to 12 degrees C. A control strategy, based on the pH value, was applied to stop the aeration supply. The pH set-point was fixed at 6.0 and allowed obtaining a total nitrogen removal efficiency approximately of 50% treating a load of 67 mg TN/(L.d) without the addition of any chemicals. Although nitrite oxidizing bacteria were present in the inoculated sludge, when the pH-based control was implemented (day 30) the ammonium oxidation was favored compared to the nitrite oxidation activity. Then, the system operated stable the rest of the operational period (days 30-94) despite the presence of organic matter in the wastewater and the high variability of nitrogen load and temperature during the operation. Nitrogen was autotrophically removed accomplishing the stringent discharge limits (10 mg TN/L) and nitrate concentrations in the effluent lower than 3 mg NO3--N/L. Both biomass concentration and granules size increased during the operational period indicating the growth of the biomass inside the reactor and therefore the potential treatment capacity.
Address [Pedrouso, Alba; Aiartza, Irati; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Val del Rio, Angeles] Univ Santiago de Compostela, Sch Engn, Dept Chem Engn, E-15705 Santiago De Compostela, Spain, Email: alba.pedrouso@usc.es;
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Science Bv Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1383-5866 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000431157200012 Approved
Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 855
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Author Pedrouso, A.; Correa-Galeote, D.; Maza-Marquez, P.; Juarez-Jimenez, B.; Gonzalez-Lopez, J.; Rodelas, B.; Campos, J.L.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; del Rio, A.V..
Title Understanding the microbial trends in a nitritation reactor fed with primary settled municipal wastewater Type
Year 2021 Publication Separation And Purification Technology Abbreviated Journal Sep. Purif. Technol.
Volume 256 Issue Pages 117828
Keywords Autotrophic nitrogen removal; Free nitrous acid; Low temperature; Mainstream; Nitrite oxidation inhibition
Abstract Partial nitritation was pointed out as the key step to implement the autotrophic nitrogen removal processes at low temperature. This study investigated the initiation and maintenance of a nitritation process with simultaneous COD removal in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) run at 15 degrees C and fed with primary settled urban wastewater characterized by 42 +/- 10 mg TOC/L and 45 +/- 4 mg NH4+-N/L. A nitrite accumulation ratio of nearly 100% was observed and the long-term (354 days) process stability was successfully maintained despite the municipal wastewater composition fluctuations. The absence of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) activity was attributed to the free nitrous acid (FNA) in-situ accumulated at high levels (0.02-0.20 mg HNO2-N/L). Despite nitrate production was not observed, the quantification of bacterial groups indicated that NOB were present in the SBR sludge throughout the entire operational period. Ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) abundance and community structure were significantly influenced by the organic matter present in the feeding. Average organic matter removal efficiencies of 80% were obtained without observing any detrimental effect over the nitritation process performance, due to the functional redundancy within both the chemoheterotrophic and AOB communities.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1383-5866 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000675460300011 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1441
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Author Pedrouso, A.; del Rio, A.V.; Morales, N.; Vazquez-Padin, J.R.; Campos, J.L.; Mosquera-Corral, A.
Title Mainstream anammox reactor performance treating municipal wastewater and batch study of temperature, pH and organic matter concentration cross-effects Type
Year 2021 Publication Process Safety and Environmental Protection Abbreviated Journal Process Saf. Environ. Protect.
Volume 145 Issue Pages 195-202
Keywords Alkalinity; Autotrophic nitrogen removal; Inorganic carbon; Mainstream; Low temperature; Specific anammox activity
Abstract The anammox process is an energy efficient promising alternative to biologically remove the nitrogen. Thus, a 5-L anammox granular reactor was inoculated with sludge coming from a sidestream partial nitritation and anammox reactor (>200 mg TN/L and 30 degrees C) and it was directly subjected to 15 +/- 1 degrees C treating mimicked municipal wastewater (50 mg TN/L). Results indicated that an acclimation period (commonly used) to progressive reach the mainstream conditions is not needed, shortening the start-up periods. The long-term anammox process stability was proved to treat synthetic wastewater with decreasing alkalinities and nitritified primary settled municipal wastewater. The low pH values (6.2 +/- 0.1) of the municipal wastewater fed did not affect the process stability. Residual organic matter concentrations augmented the nitrogen removal efficiency from 80 % (with the synthetic medium) to 92 % achieving effluent concentrations below 10 mg TN/L. Finally, the effect of pH (6-8), temperature (15-30 degrees C) and organic matter concentration (0-75 mg TOC/L) over the specific anammox activity (SA(Amx)) was evaluated at short-term. pH and temperature and their interactions exerted significant influence on the SAAmx value while the TOC concentrations itself did not significantly change the SA(AMX). (C) 2020 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0957-5820 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000604751700017 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1325
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Author Pedrouso, A.; Vazquez-Padin, J.R.; Crutchik, D.; Campos, J.L.
Title Application of Anammox-Based Processes in Urban WWTPs: Are We on the Right Track? Type
Year 2021 Publication Processes Abbreviated Journal Processes
Volume 9 Issue 8 Pages 1334
Keywords autotrophic nitrogen removal; effluent quality; energy efficiency; mainstream; nitritation; sludge thermal hydrolysis
Abstract The application of partial nitritation and anammox processes (PN/A) to remove nitrogen can improve the energy efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as diminish their operational costs. However, there are still several limitations that are preventing the widespread application of PN/A processes in urban WWTPs such as: (a) the loss of performance stability of the PN/A units operated at the sludge line, when the sludge is thermally pretreated to increase biogas production; (b) the proliferation of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the mainstream; and (c) the maintenance of a suitable effluent quality in the mainstream. In this work, different operational strategies to overcome these limitations were modelled and analyzed. In WWTPs whose sludge is thermically hydrolyzed, the implementation of an anerobic treatment before the PN/A unit is the best alternative, from an economic point of view, to maintain the stable performance of this unit. In order to apply the PN/A process in the mainstream, the growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) should be promoted in the sludge line by supplying extra sludge to the anaerobic digesters. The AOB generated would be applied to the water line to partially oxidize ammonia, and the anammox process would then be carried out. Excess nitrate generated by anammox bacteria and/or NOB can be removed by recycling a fraction of the WWTP effluent to the biological reactor to promote its denitrification.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2227-9717 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000690228200001 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1453
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Author Valenzuela-Heredia, D.; Panatt, C:, Belmonte, M.; Franchi, O.; Crutchik, D.; Dumais, J.; Vazquez-Padin, J.R.; Lesty, Y.; Pedrouso, A.; del Rio, A.V.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J.L.
Title Performance of a two-stage partial nitritation-anammox system treating the supernatant of a sludge anaerobic digester pretreated by a thermal hydrolysis process Type
Year 2022 Publication Chemical Engineering Journal Abbreviated Journal Chem. Eng. J.
Volume 429 Issue Pages 131301
Keywords Ammonium oxidizing bacteria; Autotrophic nitrogen removal; Inhibition; NOB suppression; Operational stability; THP
Abstract A two-stage system (partial nitritation (PN) and anammox processes) was used to remove nitrogen from the dewatering liquor originating from the thermal hydrolysis/anaerobic digestion (THP/AD) of municipal WWTP sludge. Two strategies were tested to start up the PN reactor: 1) maintaining a fixed hydraulic retention time (HRT) and increasing the ammonium loading rate (ALR) by decreasing the feeding dilution ratio and 2) feeding undiluted dewatering liquor and gradually decreasing the HRT. With diluted feeding, the reactor performance had destabilization episodes that were statistically correlated with the application of high specific ammonium (> 0.6 g NH4+-N/(g TSS.d)) and organic (> 0.7 g COD/(g TSS.d)) loading rates. The second strategy allowed stable PN reactor operation while treating ALR up to 4.8 g NH4+-N/(L.d) and demonstrating that dilution of THP/AD effluents is not required. The operating conditions promoted the presence of free nitrous acid levels (> 0.14 mg HNO2-N/L) inside the PN reactor that inhibited the proliferation of nitrite oxidizing bacteria.

Batch activity tests showed that the inhibitory effects of organic compounds present in the THP/AD dewatering liquor on the ammonia oxidizing bacteria activity can be removed in the PN reactor. Thus, aerobic pretreatment would not be necessary when two-stage systems are used. The PN reactor effluent was successfully treated by an anammox reactor.

An economic analysis showed that using two-stage systems is advantageous for treating THP/AD dewatering liquor. The implementation of an aerobic pre-treatment unit is recommended for WWTPs capacities higher than 5.10(5) inhabitants equivalent when one-stage systems are used.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1385-8947 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes WOS:000722469100005 Approved
Call Number UAI @ alexi.delcanto @ Serial 1507
Permanent link to this record