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Author Urrestarazu, P.; Villavicencio, G.; Opazo, M.; Arbildua, J.; Boreiko, C.; Delbeke, K.; Rodriguez, P.H. pdf  doi
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  Title Migration protocol to estimate metal exposure from mouthing copper and tin alloy objects Type
  Year 2014 Publication Environmental Health Abbreviated Journal Environ. Health  
  Volume 13 Issue Pages 9 pp  
  Keywords Lead; Mouthing; Migration test; Alloys; Chronic exposure; Saliva  
  Abstract Background: Low blood lead levels previously thought to pose no health risks may have an adverse impact on the cognitive development of children. This concern has given rise to new regulatory restrictions upon lead metal containing products intended for child use. However few reliable experimental testing methods to estimate exposure levels from these materials are available. Methods: The present work describes a migration test using a mimetic saliva fluid to estimate the chronic exposure of children to metals such as lead while mouthing metallic objects. The surrogate saliva medium was composed of: 150 mM NaCl, 0.16% porcine Mucin and 5 mM buffer MOPS, adjusted to pH 7.2. Alloys samples, in the form of polished metallic disc of known surface area, were subjected to an eight hours test. Results: Two whitemetal alloys Sn/Pb/Sb/Cu and three brass alloys Cu/Zn/Pb were tested using the saliva migration protocol. In the case of the whitemetal alloys, first order release kinetics resulting in the release of 0.03 and 0.51 μg lead/cm(2) after 8 hours of tests were observed, for lead contents of 0.05-0.07% and 5.5%, respectively. Brasses exhibited linear incremental release rates of 0.043, 0.175 and 0.243 μg lead/cm(2)h for lead contents of 0.1-0.2%, 1.7-2.2% and 3.1-3.5%, respectively. The linear regression analysis of lead release rates relative to Pb content in brasses yielded a slope of 0.08 μg lead/cm(2)h% Pb (r(2) = 0.92). Lead release rates were used to estimate the mean daily mouthing exposure of a child to lead, according to age-specific estimates of mouthing time behavior. Calculated daily intakes were used as oral inputs for the IEUBK toxicokinetic model, predicting only marginal changes in blood lead levels (0.2 μg lead/dL or less) for children aged 0.5 to 1 years old exposed to either class of alloy. Conclusions: The results of this study as a whole support the use of migration data of metal ions, rather than total metal content, to estimate health risk from exposure to metals and metal alloys substances in children.  
  Address [Urrestarazu, Paola; Villavicencio, German; Opazo, Margaret; Arbildua, Jose; Rodriguez, Patricio H.] Univ Adolfo Ibanez, Ctr Ecotoxicol & Chem Met, Santiago 2700, Chile, Email: patricio.rodriguez@uai.cl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Biomed Central Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1476-069x ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000340967800001 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 402  
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