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Author (up) Ordonez, J.; Gago, E.J.; Girard, A. pdf  doi
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  Title Processes and technologies for the recycling and recovery of spent lithium-ion batteries Type
  Year 2016 Publication Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews Abbreviated Journal Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev.  
  Volume 60 Issue Pages 195-205  
  Keywords Spent lithium-ion batteries; Recycling; Recovery  
  Abstract LiBs pose a very specific threat, given that they contain a high percentage of dangerous heavy metals. From the 4000 t of used lithium-ion batteries collected in 2005, 1100 t of heavy metals and more than 200 t of toxic electrolytes were generated. This is why a lot of attention has been paid to the development of the technology necessary to recover and recycle LiBs in order not only to protect the environment but also to conserve resources. The recovery of major spent cell components is beneficial both in terms of environmental protection and also for the provision of raw materials. The authors of this article carried out a state of the art on the technologies used in the recycling and regeneration of industrial lithium-ion batteries. The main objective of such technologies is to enable the recycling of valuable elements present in the batteries, such as cobalt, nickel and copper, in a way which is both profitable and environmentally friendly. All the technologies used in the manufacture of lithium-ion batteries are constantly changing makes subsequent changes to the research into recycling and recovery technologies necessary. This does not mean merely finding ways to recover the precious metals, but also to recover other materials which may harm the environment, in order to dispose of them appropriately. The discussion of this research clearly reflects that: There are very few studies on the recovery of metals such as graphite, the electrolyte in spent LIBs, and it is our belief that more research is needed in this area. The research into the application of microorganisms in the used lithium batteries is few and far between. It is important to find ways to recover the precious metals and to recover other materials which may harm the environment, in order to dispose of them appropriately. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  
  Address [Ordonez, J.; Gago, E. J.] Univ Granada, Sch Civil Engn, Granada, Spain, Email: ejadraque@ugr.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1364-0321 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000378448400014 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 637  
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