We examined if the guidelines for gestational weight gain (GWG) proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) are the most suitable for Chilean women.
Secondary analysis of records of single full-term births at the Dr. Sótero del Río Hospital, Santiago, Chile, during 2003�2012 (n = 62,579).
From clinical records, we obtained data regarding maternal age, height, prepregnancy and at delivery weights, pathologies during pregnancy such as gestational diabetes (GDM) and pre-eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, and number of infants born small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA). We formulated a mathematical model (MM) to determine the GWG range that maximizes the likelihood of a healthy pregnancy (HP) if the recommendation is followed. We defined an HP as one where the mother has no complications such as pre-eclampsia, GDM, SGA, or LGA.
Forty-six percent of women had prepregnancy overweight or obesity. The prevalence of GDM, pre-eclampsia, SGA, and LGA were 3%, 1.2%, 9%, and 12%, respectively. An HP was present in 76% of pregnancies, 79% in the underweight group, 79% in normal weight group, 74% in the overweight group, and 67% in obese women. The GWG recommendations given by the MM (14�20 kg for underweight, 6�20 kg for normal weight, 9�11 kg for overweight, and 6�7 kg for obese) led to higher probabilities of achieving an HP than the ones obtained with the IOM recommendations.
The adoption of GWG recommendations based on characteristics of the Chilean population might lead to better short- and long-term health results for pregnant women.