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Author Velazquez, R.; Pissaloux, E.; Rodrigo, P.; Carrasco, M.; Giannoccaro, N.I.; Lay-Ekuakille, A. doi  openurl
  Title An Outdoor Navigation System for Blind Pedestrians Using GPS and Tactile-Foot Feedback Type
  Year 2018 Publication Applied Sciences-Basel Abbreviated Journal Appl. Sci.-Basel  
  Volume 8 Issue 4 Pages 15 pp  
  Keywords assistive technology; blind pedestrian; GPS localization; mobile computing; navigational system; tactile display; tactile-foot stimulation; wearable system  
  Abstract This paper presents a novel, wearable navigation system for visually impaired and blind pedestrians that combines a global positioning system (GPS) for user outdoor localization and tactile-foot stimulation for information presentation. Real-time GPS data provided by a smartphone are processed by dedicated navigation software to determine the directions to a destination. Navigational directions are then encoded as vibrations and conveyed to the user via a tactile display that inserts into the shoe. The experimental results showed that users were capable of recognizing with high accuracy the tactile feedback provided to their feet. The preliminary tests conducted in outdoor locations involved two blind users who were guided along 380-420 m predetermined pathways, while sharing the space with other pedestrians and facing typical urban obstacles. The subjects successfully reached the target destinations. The results suggest that the proposed system enhances independent, safe navigation of blind pedestrians and show the potential of tactile-foot stimulation in assistive devices.  
  Address [Velazquez, Ramiro; Rodrigo, Pedro] Univ Panamericana, Fac Engn, Aguascalientes 20290, Mexico, Email:;  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Mdpi Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2076-3417 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000434996400105 Approved  
  Call Number UAI @ eduardo.moreno @ Serial 880  
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