Universal Evolutionary Model for Periodical Species
Goles
E
author
Slapnicar
I
author
Lardies
M
A
author
2021
Real-world examples of periodical species range from cicadas, whose life cycles are large prime numbers, like 13 or 17, to bamboos, whose periods are large multiples of small primes, like 40 or even 120. The periodicity is caused by interaction of species, be it a predator-prey relationship, symbiosis, commensalism, or competition exclusion principle. We propose a simple mathematical model, which explains and models all those principles, including listed extremal cases. This rather universal, qualitative model is based on the concept of a local fitness function, where a randomly chosen new period is selected if the value of the global fitness function of the species increases. Arithmetically speaking, the different interactions are related to only four principles: given a couple of integer periods either (1) their greatest common divisor is one, (2) one of the periods is prime, (3) both periods are equal, or (4) one period is an integer multiple of the other.
SELECTION
INTERVALS
ORIGINS
CYCLES
WOS:000741734700002
exported from refbase (show.php?record=1514), last updated on Thu, 27 Jan 2022 11:20:47 -0300
text
10.1155/2021/2976351
Goles_etal2021
Complexity
Complexity
2021
continuing
periodical
academic journal
2021
2976351
1076-2787