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Akhmediev, N., Kibler, B., Baronio, F., Belic, M., Zhong, W. P., Zhang, Y. Q., et al. (2016). Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events. J. Opt., 18(6), 37 pp.
Abstract: The pioneering paper 'Optical rogue waves' by Solli et al (2007 Nature 450 1054) started the new subfield in optics. This work launched a great deal of activity on this novel subject. As a result, the initial concept has expanded and has been enriched by new ideas. Various approaches have been suggested since then. A fresh look at the older results and new discoveries has been undertaken, stimulated by the concept of 'optical rogue waves'. Presently, there may not by a unique view on how this new scientific term should be used and developed. There is nothing surprising when the opinion of the experts diverge in any new field of research. After all, rogue waves may appear for a multiplicity of reasons and not necessarily only in optical fibers and not only in the process of supercontinuum generation. We know by now that rogue waves may be generated by lasers, appear in wide aperture cavities, in plasmas and in a variety of other optical systems. Theorists, in turn, have suggested many other situations when rogue waves may be observed. The strict definition of a rogue wave is still an open question. For example, it has been suggested that it is defined as 'an optical pulse whose amplitude or intensity is much higher than that of the surrounding pulses'. This definition (as suggested by a peer reviewer) is clear at the intuitive level and can be easily extended to the case of spatial beams although additional clarifications are still needed. An extended definition has been presented earlier by N Akhmediev and E Pelinovsky (2010 Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185 1-4). Discussions along these lines are always useful and all new approaches stimulate research and encourage discoveries of new phenomena. Despite the potentially existing disagreements, the scientific terms 'optical rogue waves' and 'extreme events' do exist. Therefore coordination of our efforts in either unifying the concept or in introducing alternative definitions must be continued. From this point of view, a number of the scientists who work in this area of research have come together to present their research in a single review article that will greatly benefit all interested parties of this research direction. Whether the authors of this 'roadmap' have similar views or different from the original concept, the potential reader of the review will enrich their knowledge by encountering most of the existing views on the subject. Previously, a special issue on optical rogue waves (2013 J. Opt. 15 060201) was successful in achieving this goal but over two years have passed and more material has been published in this quickly emerging subject. Thus, it is time for a roadmap that may stimulate and encourage further research.
Aylwin, R., Silva-Oelker, G., Jerez-Hanckes, C., & Fay, P. (2020). Optimization methods for achieving high diffraction efficiency with perfect electric conducting gratings. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis., 37(8), 1316–1326.
Abstract: This work presents the implementation, numerical examples, and experimental convergence study of first- and second-order optimization methods applied to one-dimensional periodic gratings. Through boundary integral equations and shape derivatives, the profile of a grating is optimized such that it maximizes the diffraction efficiency for given diffraction modes for transverse electric polarization. We provide a thorough comparison of three different optimization methods: a first-order method (gradient descent); a second-order approach based on a Newton iteration, where the usual Newton step is replaced by taking the absolute value of the eigenvalues given by the spectral decomposition of the Hessian matrix to deal with non-convexity; and the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithm, a quasi-Newton method. Numerical examples are provided to validate our claims. Moreover, two grating profiles are designed for high efficiency in the Littrow configuration and then compared to a high efficiency commercial grating. Conclusions and recommendations, derived from the numerical experiments, are provided as well as future research avenues. (C) 2020 Optical Society of America
Borquez-Paredes, D., Beghelli, A., Leiva, A., Jara, N., Lozada, A., Morales, P., et al. (2022). Agent-based distributed protocol for resource discovery and allocation of virtual networks over elastic optical networks. J. Opt. Commun. Netw., 14(8), 667–679.
Abstract: Network virtualization is a key enabling technology for “Infrastructure as a Service” provisioning, increasing the flexibility and cost savings offered to customers. By extending the concept of server virtualization to the network infrastructure, the allocation of different, independent virtual networks over a single physical network is carried out on demand. A fundamental challenge in network virtualization systems is to choose which physical nodes and links to use for hosting virtual networks in the physical infrastructure, known as the “virtual network allocation” problem. All virtual network allocation proposals on elastic optical networks assume a centralized operation, deploying a single node with access to the network state global information and assigning resources accordingly. However, such configuration might exhibit the inherent problems of centralized systems: survivability and scalability. In this paper, we present a distributed protocol for resource discovery, mapping, and allocation of network virtualization systems. The distributed protocol is generic enough as to be used with different substrate networks. However, in this paper, it has been adapted to work over an elastic optical network infrastructure, where further considerations regarding the spectrum continuity and contiguity constraints must also be taken into account. The distributed protocol is based on the concept of alliances: upon the arrival of a virtual network request, agents located in the physical network nodes compete to form the first alliance able to host the virtual network. Because the first alliances to be formed are also the ones composed by nearby nodes, a good network resource usage is achieved. The feasibility of the distributed protocol was studied by evaluating its ability to successfully establish virtual networks within acceptable time and with low bandwidth consumption from the coordination messages.