Hojman, S. A., & Asenjo, F. A. (2020). Phenomenological dynamics of COVID19 pandemic: Metaanalysis for adjustment parameters. Chaos, 30(10), 12 pp.
Abstract: We present a phenomenological procedure of dealing with the COVID19 (coronavirus disease 2019) data provided by government health agencies of 11 different countries. Usually, the exact or approximate solutions of susceptibleinfectedrecovered (or other) model(s) are obtained fitting the data by adjusting the timeindependent parameters that are included in those models. Instead of that, in this work, we introduce dynamical parameters whose timedependence may be phenomenologically obtained by adequately extrapolating a chosen subset of the daily provided data. This phenomenological approach works extremely well to properly adjust the number of infected (and removed) individuals in time for the countries we consider. Besides, it can handle the subepidemic events that some countries may experience. In this way, we obtain the evolution of the pandemic without using any a priori model based on differential equations.

Hojman, S. A., & Asenjo, F. A. (2013). Can gravitation accelerate neutrinos? Class. Quantum Gravity, 30(2), 10 pp.
Abstract: The Lagrangian equations of motion for massive spinning test particles (tops) moving on a gravitational background using general relativity are presented. The paths followed by tops are nongeodesic. An exact solution for the motion of tops on a Schwarzschild background which allows for superluminal propagation of tops is studied. It is shown that the solution becomes relevant for particles with small masses, such as neutrinos. This general result is used to calculate the necessary condition to produce superluminal motion in part of the trajectory of a small mass particle in a weak gravitational field. The condition for superluminal motion establishes a relation between the mass, energy and total angular momentum of the particle.

Zalaquett, N., Hojman, S. A., & Asenjo, F. A. (2014). Spinning massive test particles in cosmological and general static spherically symmetric spacetimes. Class. Quantum Gravity, 31(8), 21 pp.
Abstract: A Lagrangian formalism is used to study the motion of a spinning massive particle in FriedmannRobertsonWalker and Godel spacetimes, as well as in a general Schwarzschildlike spacetime and in static spherically symmetric conformally flat spacetimes. Exact solutions for the motion of the particle and general exact expressions for the momenta and velocities are displayed for different cases. In particular, the solution for the motion in spherically symmetric metrics is presented in the equatorial plane. The exact solutions are found using constants of motion of the particle, namely its mass, its spin, its angular momentum, and a fourth constant, which is its energy when the metric is timeindependent, and a different constant otherwise. These constants are associated to Killing vectors. In the case of the motion on the FriedmannRobertsonWalker metric, a new constant of motion is found. This is the fourth constant which generalizes previously known results obtained for spinless particles. In the case of general Schwarzschildlike spacetimes, our results allow for the exploration of the case of the ReissnerNordstrom(Anti) de Sitter metric. Finally, for the case of the conformally flat spacetimes, the solution is explicitly evaluated for different metric tensors associated to a universe filled with static perfect fluids and electromagnetic radiation. For some combination of the values of the constants of motion the particle trajectories may exhibit spacelike velocity vectors in portions of the trajectories.

Hojman, S. A., & Asenjo, F. A. (2017). Spinning particles coupled to gravity and the validity of the universality of free fall. Class. Quantum Gravity, 34(11), 8 pp.
Abstract: Recent experimental work has determined that free falling Rb87 atoms on Earth, with vertically aligned spins, follow geodesics, thus apparently ruling out spingravitation interactions. It is showed that while some spinning matter models coupled to gravitation referenced to in that work seem to be ruled out by the experiment, those same experimental results confirm theoretical results derived from a Lagrangian description of spinning particles coupled to gravity constructed over forty years ago. A proposal to carry out (similar but) different experiments which will help to test the validity of the universality of free fall as opposed to the correctness of the aforementioned Lagrangian theory, is presented.

Asenjo, F. A., & Hojman, S. A. (2017). Do electromagnetic waves always propagate along null geodesics? Class. Quantum Gravity, 34(20), 12 pp.
Abstract: We find exact solutions to Maxwell equations written in terms of fourvector potentials in nonrotating, as well as in Gdel and Kerr spacetimes. We show that Maxwell equations can be reduced to two uncoupled secondorder differential equations for combinations of the components of the fourvector potential. Exact electromagnetic waves solutions are written on given gravitational field backgrounds where they evolve. We find that in nonrotating spherical symmetric spacetimes, electromagnetic waves travel along null geodesics. However, electromagnetic waves on Gdel and Kerr spacetimes do not exhibit that behavior.

Asenjo, F. A., & Hojman, S. A. (2017). New nonlinear modified massless KleinGordon equation. Eur. Phys. J. C, 77(11), 5 pp.
Abstract: The massless KleinGordon equation on arbitrary curved backgrounds allows for solutions which develop “tails” inside the light cone and, therefore, do not strictly follow null geodesics as discovered by DeWitt and Brehme almost 60 years ago. A modification of the massless KleinGordon equation is presented, which always exhibits null geodesic propagation of waves on arbitrary curved spacetimes. This new equation is derived from a Lagrangian which exhibits currentcurrent interaction. Its nonlinearity is due to a selfcoupling term which is related to the quantum mechanical Bohm potential.

Hojman, S. A., & Asenjo, F. A. (2018). Nongeodesic circular motion of massive spinning test bodies around a Schwarzschild field in the Lagrangian theory. Eur. Phys. J. C, 78(10), 7 pp.
Abstract: Recent interest on studying possible violations of the Equivalence Principle has led to the development of space satellite missions testing it for bodies moving on circular orbits around Earth. This experiment establishes that the validity of the equivalence principle is independent of the composition of bodies. However, the internal degrees of freedom of the bodies (such as spin) were not taken into account. In this work, it is shown exactly that the circular orbit motion of test bodies does present a departure from geodesic motion when spin effects are not negligible. Using a Lagrangian theory for spinning massive bodies, an exact solution for their circular motion is found showing that the nongeodesic behavior manifests through different tangential velocities of the test bodies, depending on the orientation of its spin with respect to the total angular momentum of the satellite. Besides, for circular orbits, spinning test bodies present no tangential acceleration. We estimate the difference of the two possible tangential velocities for the case of circular motion of spinning test bodies orbiting Earth.

Asenjo, F. A., & Hojman, S. A. (2019). Correspondence between dark energy quantum cosmology and Maxwell equations. Eur. Phys. J. C, 79(9), 5 pp.
Abstract: A FriedmannRobertsonWalker cosmology with dark energy can be modelled using a quintessence field. That system is equivalent to a relativistic particle moving on a twodimensional conformal spacetime. When the quintessence behaves as a free massless scalar field in a Universe with cosmological constant, the quantized version of that theory can lead to a supersymmetric Majorana quantum cosmology. The purpose of this work is to show that such quantum cosmological model corresponds to the Maxwell equations for electromagnetic waves propagating in a medium with specific values for its relative permittivity and relative permeability. The form of those media parameters are calculated, implying that a Majorana quantum cosmology can be studied in an analogue electromagnetic system.

Asenjo, F. A., & Hojman, S. A. (2020). Casimir force induced by electromagnetic wave polarization in Kerr, Godel and BianchiI spacetimes. Eur. Phys. J. C, 80(11), 7 pp.
Abstract: Electromagnetic waves propagation on either rotating or anisotropic spacetime backgrounds (such as Kerr and Gödel metrics, or Bianchi�I metric) produce a reduction of the magnitude of Casimir forces between plates. These
curved spacetimes behave as chiral or birefringent materials producing dispersion of electromagnetic waves, in such a way that right� and left�circularly polarized light waves propagate with different phase velocities. Results are explicitly calculated for discussed cases. The difference on the wavevectors of the two polarized electromagnetic waves produces an abatement of a Casimir force which depends on the interaction between the polarization of electromagnetic
waves and the properties of the spacetime.

Asenjo, F. A., & Hojman, S. A. (2021). Accelerating solutions to diffusion equation. Eur. Phys. J. Plus., 136(6), 677.
Abstract: We report accelerating diffusive solutions to the diffusion equation with a constant diffusion tensor. The maximum values of the diffusion density evolve in an accelerating fashion described by Airy functions. We show the diffusive accelerating behavior for onedimensional systems, as well as for a general threedimensional case. We also construct a modulated modified form of the diffusion solution that retains the accelerating features.

Asenjo, F. A., & Hojman, S. A. (2017). Class of Exact Solutions for a Cosmological Model of Unified Gravitational and Quintessence Fields. Found. Phys., 47(7), 887–896.
Abstract: A new approach to tackle Einstein equations for an isotropic and homogeneous FriedmannRobertsonWalker Universe in the presence of a quintessence scalar field is devised. It provides a way to get a simple exact solution to these equations. This solution determines the quintessence potential uniquely and it differs from solutions which have been used to study inflation previously. It relays on a unification of geometry and dark matter implemented through the definition of a functional relation between the scale factor of the Universe and the quintessence field. For a positive curvature Universe, this solution produces perpetual accelerated expansion rate of the Universe, while the Hubble parameter increases abruptly, attains a maximum value and decreases thereafter. The behavior of this cosmological solution is discussed and its main features are displayed. The formalism is extended to include matter and radiation.

Mahajan, S. M., & Asenjo, F. A. (2015). Hot Fluids and Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics. Int. J. Theor. Phys., 54(5), 1435–1449.
Abstract: A hot relativistic fluid is viewed as a collection of quantum objects that represent interacting elementary particles. We present a conceptual framework for deriving nonlinear equations of motion obeyed by these hypothesized objects. A uniform phenomenological prescription, to affect the quantum transition from a corresponding classical system, is invoked to derive the nonlinear Schrodinger, KleinGordon, and PauliSchrodinger and FeynmanGellMaan equations. It is expected that the emergent hypothetical nonlinear quantum mechanics would advance, in a fundamental way, both the conceptual understanding and computational abilities, particularly, in the field of extremely high energydensity physics.

Asenjo, F. A., & Moya, P. S. (2019). The contribution of magnetic monopoles to the ponderomotive force. J. Phys. AMath. Theor., 52(25), 13 pp.
Abstract: When magnetic monopoles are assumed to exist in plasma dynamics, the propagation of electromagnetic waves is modified as Maxwell equations acquire a symmetrical structure due to the existence of electric and magnetic charge and current densities. This work presents a theoretical exploration on how far we can push the limits of a plasma theory under the presence of magnetic monopoles. In particular, we study the modification of ponderomotive forces in a plasma composed by electric and magnetic charges. We show that the general ponderomotive force on this plasma depends nontrivially on the magnetic monopoles, through the slow temporal and spatial variations of the electromagnetic field amplitudes. The magnetic charges introduce corrections even if the plasma is unmagnetized. Also, it is shown that the magnetic monopoles also experience a ponderomotive force due to the electrons. This force is in the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic waves.

Mahajan, S. M., & Asenjo, F. A. (2017). Explicitly covariant dispersion relations and selfinduced transparency. J. Plasma Phys., 83, 15 pp.
Abstract: Explicitly covariant dispersion relations for a variety of plasma waves in unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas are derived in a systematic manner from a fully covariant plasma formulation. One needs to invoke relatively little known invariant combinations constructed from the ambient electromagnetic fields and the wave vector to accomplish the program. The implication of this work applied to the self induced transparency effect is discussed. Some problems arising from the inconsistent use of relativity are pointed out.

Mahajan, S. M., Asenjo, F. A., & Hazeltine, R. D. (2015). Comparison of the electronspin force and radiation reaction force. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 446(4), 4112–4115.
Abstract: It is shown that the forces that originate from the electronspin interacting with the electromagnetic field can play, along with the Lorentz force, a fundamentally important role in determining the electron motion in a high energy density plasma embedded in strong highfrequency radiation, a situation that pertains to both laserproduced and astrophysical systems. These forces, for instance, dominate the standard radiation reaction force as long as there is a 'sufficiently' strong ambient magnetic field for affecting spin alignment. The inclusion of spin forces in any advanced modelling of electron dynamics pertaining to high energy density systems (for instance in particleincell codes), therefore, is a must.

Munoz, V., Asenjo, F. A., Dominguez, M., Lopez, R. A., Valdivia, J. A., Vinas, A., et al. (2014). Largeamplitude electromagnetic waves in magnetized relativistic plasmas with temperature. Nonlinear Process Geophys., 21(1), 217–236.
Abstract: Propagation of largeamplitude waves in plasmas is subject to several sources of nonlinearity due to relativistic effects, either when particle quiver velocities in the wave field are large, or when thermal velocities are large due to relativistic temperatures. Wave propagation in these conditions has been studied for decades, due to its interest in several contexts such as pulsar emission models, laserplasma interaction, and extragalactic jets. For largeamplitude circularly polarized waves propagating along a constant magnetic field, an exact solution of the fluid equations can be found for relativistic temperatures. Relativistic thermal effects produce: (a) a decrease in the effective plasma frequency (thus, waves in the electromagnetic branch can propagate for lower frequencies than in the cold case); and (b) a decrease in the upper frequency cutoff for the Alfven branch (thus, Alfven waves are confined to a frequency range that is narrower than in the cold case). It is also found that the Alfven speed decreases with temperature, being zero for infinite temperature. We have also studied the same system, but based on the relativistic Vlasov equation, to include thermal effects along the direction of propagation. It turns out that kinetic and fluid results are qualitatively consistent, with several quantitative differences. Regarding the electromagnetic branch, the effective plasma frequency is always larger in the kinetic model. Thus, kinetic effects reduce the transparency of the plasma. As to the Alfven branch, there is a critical, nonzero value of the temperature at which the Alfven speed is zero. For temperatures above this critical value, the Alfven branch is suppressed; however, if the background magnetic field increases, then Alfven waves can propagate for larger temperatures. There are at least two ways in which the above results can be improved. First, nonlinear decays of the electromagnetic wave have been neglected; second, the kinetic treatment considers thermal effects only along the direction of propagation. We have approached the first subject by studying the parametric decays of the exact wave solution found in the context of fluid theory. The dispersion relation of the decays has been solved, showing several resonant and nonresonant instabilities whose dependence on the wave amplitude and plasma temperature has been studied systematically. Regarding the second subject, we are currently performing numerical 1D particle in cell simulations, a work that is still in progress, although preliminary results are consistent with the analytical ones.

Asenjo, F. A., Hojman, S. A., MoyaCessa, H. M., & SotoEguibar, F. (2021). Propagation of light in linear and quadratic GRIN media: The Bohm potential. Opt. Commun., 490, 126947.
Abstract: It is shown that field propagation in linear and quadratic gradientindex (GRIN) media obeys the same rules of free propagation in the sense that a field propagating in free space has a (mathematical) form that may be exported to those particular GRIN media. The Bohm potential is introduced in order to explain the reason of such behavior: it changes the dynamics by modifying the original potential . The concrete cases of two different initials conditions for each potential are analyzed.

Asenjo, F. A., Erices, C., Gomberoff, A., Hojman, S. A., & Montecinos, A. (2017). Differential geometry approach to asymmetric transmission of light. Opt. Express, 25(22), 26405–26416.
Abstract: In the last ten years, the technology of differential geometry, ubiquitous in gravitational physics, has found its place in the field of optics. It has been successfully used in the design of optical metamaterials through a technique now known as “transformation optics.” This method, however, only applies for the particular class of metamaterials known as impedance matched, that is, materials whose electric permittivity is equal to their magnetic permeability. In that case, the material may be described by a spacetime metric. In the present work we will introduce a generalization of the geometric methods of transformation optics to situations in which the material is not impedance matched. In such situations, the material or more precisely, its constitutive tensorwill not be described by a metric only. We bring in a second tensor, with the local symmetries of the Weyl tensor, the “Wtensor.” In the geometric optics approximation we show how the properties of the Wtensor are related to the asymmetric transmission of the material. We apply this feature to the design of a particularly interesting set of asymmetric materials. These materials are birefringent when light rays approach the material in a given direction, but behave just like vacuum when the rays have the opposite direction with the appropriate polarization (or, in some cases, independently of the polarization). (C) 2017 Optical Society of America

Hojman, S. A., Asenjo, F. A., MoyaCessa, H. M., & SotoEguibar, F. (2021). Bohm potential is real and its effects are measurable. Optik, 232, 166341.
Abstract: We analyze Bohm potential effects both in the realms of Quantum Mechanics and Optics, as well as in the study of other physical phenomena described in terms of classical and quantum wave equations. We approach this subject by using theoretical arguments as well as experimental evidence. We find that the effects produced by Bohm potential are both theoretically responsible for the early success of Quantum Mechanics correctly describing atomic and nuclear phenomena and, more recently, by confirming surprising accelerating behavior of free waves and particles experimentally, for instance.

Qadir, A., Asenjo, F. A., & Mahajan, S. M. (2014). Magnetic field seed generation in plasmas around charged and rotating black holes. Phys. Scr., 89(8), 7 pp.
Abstract: Previous work by the authors introduced the possibility of generating seed magnetic fields by spacetime curvature and applied it in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole. It was pointed out that it would be worthwhile to consider the effect in other background geometries and particularly in the vicinity of a rotating black hole, which is generically to be expected, astrophysically. In this paper that suggestion is followed up and we calculate generated magnetic field seed due to ReissnerNordstrom and Kerr spacetimes. The conditions for the drive for the seed of a magnetic field is obtained for charged black holes, finding that in the horizon the drive vanishes. Also, the psi Nforce produced by the Kerr black hole is obtained and its relation with the magnetic field seed is discussed, producing a more effective drive.
