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Navarrete, S. A., Barahona, M., Weidberg, N., & Broitman, B. R. (2022). Climate change in the coastal ocean: shifts in pelagic productivity and regionally diverging dynamics of coastal ecosystems. Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci., 289(1970).
Abstract: Climate change has led to intensification and poleward migration of the Southeastern Pacific Anticyclone, forcing diverging regions of increasing, equatorward and decreasing, poleward coastal phytoplankton productivity along the Humboldt Upwelling Ecosystem, and a transition zone around 31 degrees S. Using a 20-year dataset of barnacle larval recruitment and adult abundances, we show that striking increases in larval arrival have occurred since 1999 in the region of higher productivity, while slower but significantly negative trends dominate poleward of 30 degrees S, where years of recruitment failure are now common. Rapid increases in benthic adults result from fast recruitment-stock feedbacks following increased recruitment. Slower population declines in the decreased productivity region may result from aging but still reproducing adults that provide temporary insurance against population collapses. Thus, in this region of the ocean where surface waters have been cooling down, climate change is transforming coastal pelagic and benthic ecosystems through altering primary productivity, which seems to propagate up the food web at rates modulated by stock-recruitment feedbacks and storage effects. Slower effects of downward productivity warn us that poleward stocks may be closer to collapse than current abundances may suggest.
Keywords: benthic-pelagic coupling; bottom-up regulation; climate change; population regulation; Humboldt Upwelling Ecosystem; stock-recruitment and storage
Uranga, R. M., Millan, C., Barahona, M. J., Recabal, A., Salgado, M., Martinez, F., et al. (2017). Adenovirus-mediated suppression of hypothalamic glucokinase affects feeding behavior. Sci Rep, 7, 13 pp.
Abstract: Glucokinase (GK), the hexokinase involved in glucosensing in pancreatic beta-cells, is also expressed in arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons and hypothalamic tanycytes, the cells that surround the basal third ventricle (3V). Several lines of evidence suggest that tanycytes may be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Tanycytes have extended cell processes that contact the feeding-regulating neurons in the AN, particularly, agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. In this study, we developed an adenovirus expressing GK shRNA to inhibit GK expression in vivo. When injected into the 3V of rats, this adenovirus preferentially transduced tanycytes. qRT-PCR and Western blot assays confirmed GK mRNA and protein levels were lower in GK knockdown animals compared to the controls. In response to an intracerebroventricular glucose injection, the mRNA levels of anorexigenic POMC and CART and orexigenic AgRP and NPY neuropeptides were altered in GK knockdown animals. Similarly, food intake, meal duration, frequency of eating events and the cumulative eating time were increased, whereas the intervals between meals were decreased in GK knockdown rats, suggesting a decrease in satiety. Thus, GK expression in the ventricular cells appears to play an important role in feeding behavior.