Asenjo, F. A., & Comisso, L. (2015). Generalized Magnetofluid Connections in Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics. Phys. Rev. Lett., 114(11), 5 pp.
Abstract: The concept of magnetic connections is extended to nonideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamical plasmas. Adopting a general set of equations for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics including thermalinertial, thermal electromotive, Hall, and currentinertia effects, we derive a new covariant connection equation showing the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved during the dissipationless plasma dynamics. These connections are intimately linked to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields, allowing the extension of the magnetic connection notion to a much broader concept.

Asenjo, F. A., & Comisso, L. (2017). Magnetic connections in curved spacetime. Phys. Rev. D, 96(12), 7 pp.
Abstract: The ideal magnetohydrodynamic theorem on the conservation of the magnetic connections between plasma elements is generalized to relativistic plasmas in curved spacetime. The connections between plasma elements, which are established by a covariant connection equation, display a particularly complex structure in curved spacetime. Nevertheless, it is shown that these connections can be interpreted in terms of magnetic field lines alone by adopting a 3 + 1 foliation of spacetime.

Asenjo, F. A., & Comisso, L. (2017). Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in Kerr Spacetime. Phys. Rev. Lett., 118(5), 5 pp.
Abstract: The magnetic reconnection process is analyzed for relativistic magnetohydrodynamical plasmas around rotating black holes. A simple generalization of the SweetParker model is used as a first approximation to the problem. The reconnection rate, as well as other important properties of the reconnection layer, has been calculated taking into account the effect of spacetime curvature. Azimuthal and radial current sheet configurations in the equatorial plane of the black hole have been studied, and the case of small black hole rotation rate has been analyzed. For the azimuthal configuration, it is found that the black hole rotation decreases the reconnection rate. On the other hand, in the radial configuration, it is the gravitational force created by the black hole mass that decreases the reconnection rate. These results establish a fundamental interaction between gravity and magnetic reconnection in astrophysical contexts.

Asenjo, F. A., & Comisso, L. (2019). Gravitational electromotive force in magnetic reconnection around Schwarzschild black holes. Phys. Rev. D, 99(6), 7 pp.
Abstract: We analytically explore the effects of the gravitational electromotive force on magnetic reconnection around Schwarzschild black holes through a generalized generalrelativistic magnetohydrodynamic model that retains twofluid effects. It is shown that the gravitational electromotive force can couple to collisionless twofluid effects and drive magnetic reconnection. This is allowed by the departure from quasineutrality in curved spacetime, which is explicitly manifested as the emergence of an effective resistivity in Ohm's law. The departure from quasineutrality is owed to different gravitational pulls experienced by separate parts of the current layer. This produces an enhancement of the reconnecion rate due to purely gravitational effects.

Asenjo, F. A., Comisso, L., & Mahajan, S. M. (2015). Generalized magnetofluid connections in pair plasmas. Phys. Plasmas, 22(12), 4 pp.
Abstract: We extend the magnetic connection theorem of ideal magnetohydrodynamics to nonideal relativistic pair plasmas. Adopting a generalized Ohm's law, we prove the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved by the plasma dynamics. We show that these connections are related to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields. The generalized magnetofluid connections set important constraints on the plasma dynamics by forbidding transitions between configurations with different magnetofluid connectivity. An approximated solution is explicitly shown where the corrections due to current inertial effects are found. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Comisso, L., & Asenjo, F. A. (2014). ThermalInertial Effects on Magnetic Reconnection in Relativistic Pair Plasmas. Phys. Rev. Lett., 113(4), 5 pp.
Abstract: The magnetic reconnection process is studied in relativistic pair plasmas when the thermal and inertial properties of the magnetohydrodynamical fluid are included. We find that in both SweetParker and Petschek relativistic scenarios there is an increase of the reconnection rate owing to the thermalinertial effects, both satisfying causality. To characterize the new effects we define a thermalinertial number which is independent of the relativistic Lundquist number, implying that reconnection can be achieved even for vanishing resistivity as a result of only thermalinertial effects. The current model has fundamental importance for relativistic collisionless reconnection, as it constitutes the simplest way to get reconnection rates faster than those accessible with the sole resistivity.

Comisso, L., & Asenjo, F. A. (2018). Collisionless magnetic reconnection in curved spacetime and the effect of black hole rotation. Phys. Rev. D, 97(4), 9 pp.
Abstract: Magnetic reconnection in curved spacetime is studied by adopting a generalrelativistic magnetohydrodynamic model that retains collisionless effects for both electronion and pair plasmas. A simple generalization of the standard SweetParker model allows us to obtain the firstorder effects of the gravitational field of a rotating black hole. It is shown that the black hole rotation acts to increase the length of azimuthal reconnection layers, thus leading to a decrease of the reconnection rate. However, when coupled to collisionless thermalinertial effects, the net reconnection rate is enhanced with respect to what would happen in a purely collisional plasma due to a broadening of the reconnection layer. These findings identify an underlying interaction between gravity and collisionless magnetic reconnection in the vicinity of compact objects.

Comisso, L., & Asenjo, F. A. (2020). Generalized magnetofluid connections in a curved spacetime. Phys. Rev. D, 102(2), 8 pp.
Abstract: The ideal magnetohydrodynamic theorem on the conservation of the magnetic connections between plasma elements is extended to nonideal relativistic plasmas in curved spacetime. The existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved by the plasma dynamics is formalized by means of a covariant connection equation that includes different nonideal effects. These generalized connections are constituted by 2dimensional hypersurfaces, which are linked to an antisymmetric tensor field that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields. They can be interpreted in terms of generalized magnetofluid vorticity field lines by considering a 3 + 1 foliation of spacetime and a time resetting projection that compensates for the loss of simultaneity between spatially separated events. The worldshects of the generalized magnetofluid vorticity field lines play a fundamental role in the plasma dynamics by prohibiting evolutions that do not preserve the magnetofluid connectivity.

Comisso, L., & Asenjo, F. A. (2021). Magnetic reconnection as a mechanism for energy extraction from rotating black holes. Phys. Rev. D., 103(2), 023014.
Abstract: Spinning black holes store rotational energy that can be extracted. When a black hole is immersed in an externally supplied magnetic field, reconnection of magnetic field lines within the ergosphere can generate negative energy (relative to infinity) particles that fall into the black hole event horizon while the other accelerated particles escape stealing energy from the black hole. We show analytically that energy extraction via magnetic reconnection is possible when the black hole spin is high (dimensionless spin a similar to 1) and the plasma is strongly magnetized (plasma magnetization sigma(0) > 1/3). The parameter space region where energy extraction is allowed depends on the plasma magnetization and the orientation of the reconnecting magnetic field lines. For sigma(0) >> 1, the asymptotic negative energy at infinity per enthalpy of the decelerated plasma that is swallowed by a maximally rotating black hole is found to be epsilon(infinity)() similar or equal to – root sigma(0)/3. The accelerated plasma that escapes to infinity and takes away black hole energy asymptotes the energy at infinity per enthalpy epsilon(infinity)(+) similar or equal to root 3 sigma(0).. We show that the maximum power extracted from the black hole by the escaping plasma is Pextr(max) similar to 0.1M(2) root sigma(0)w(0) (here, M is the black hole mass and w(0) is the plasma enthalpy density) for the collisionless plasma regime and one order of magnitude lower for the collisional regime. Energy extraction causes a significant spindown of the black hole when a similar to 1. The maximum efficiency of the plasma energization process via magnetic reconnection in the ergosphere is found to be eta(max) similar or equal to 3/2. Since fast magnetic reconnection in the ergosphere should occur intermittently in the scenario proposed here, the associated emission within a few gravitational radii from the black hole is expected to display a bursty nature.
