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Dawson, R. I., Huang, C. L. X., Brahm, R., Collins, K. A., Hobson, M. J., Jordan, A., et al. (2021). Precise Transit and Radial-velocity Characterization of a Resonant Pair: The Warm Jupiter TOI-216c and Eccentric Warm Neptune TOI-216b. Astron. J., 161(4), 161.
Abstract: TOI-216 hosts a pair of warm, large exoplanets discovered by the TESS mission. These planets were found to be in or near the 2:1 resonance, and both of them exhibit transit timing variations (TTVs). Precise characterization of the planets' masses and radii, orbital properties, and resonant behavior can test theories for the origins of planets orbiting close to their stars. Previous characterization of the system using the first six sectors of TESS data suffered from a degeneracy between planet mass and orbital eccentricity. Radial-velocity measurements using HARPS, FEROS, and the Planet Finder Spectrograph break that degeneracy, and an expanded TTV baseline from TESS and an ongoing ground-based transit observing campaign increase the precision of the mass and eccentricity measurements. We determine that TOI-216c is a warm Jupiter, TOI-216b is an eccentric warm Neptune, and that they librate in 2:1 resonance with a moderate libration amplitude of deg, a small but significant free eccentricity of for TOI-216b, and a small but significant mutual inclination of 12-39 (95% confidence interval). The libration amplitude, free eccentricity, and mutual inclination imply a disturbance of TOI-216b before or after resonance capture, perhaps by an undetected third planet.
Sha, L. Z., Huang, C. L. X., Shporer, A., Rodriguez, J. E., Vanderburg, A., Brahm, R., et al. (2021). TOI-954 b and K2-329 b: Short-period Saturn-mass Planets that Test whether Irradiation Leads to Inflation. Astron. J., 161(2), 82.
Abstract: We report the discovery of two short-period Saturn-mass planets, one transiting the G subgiant TOI-954 (TIC 44792534, V = 10.343, T = 9.78) observed in TESS sectors 4 and 5 and one transiting the G dwarf K2-329 (EPIC 246193072, V = 12.70, K = 10.67) observed in K2 campaigns 12 and 19. We confirm and characterize these two planets with a variety of ground-based archival and follow-up observations, including photometry, reconnaissance spectroscopy, precise radial velocity, and high-resolution imaging. Combining all available data, we find that TOI-954 b has a radius of 0.852(-0.062)(+0.053) R-J and a mass of 0.174(-0.017)(+0.018) M-J and is in a 3.68 day orbit, while K2-329 b has a radius of 0.774(-0.024)(+0.026) R-J and a mass if 0.260(-0.022)(+0.020) M-J and is in a 12.46 day orbit. As TOI-954 b is 30 times more irradiated than K2-329 b but more or less the same size, these two planets provide an opportunity to test whether irradiation leads to inflation of Saturn-mass planets and contribute to future comparative studies that explore Saturn-mass planets at contrasting points in their lifetimes.