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Addison, B. C., Wright, D. J., Nicholson, B. A., Cale, B., Mocnik, T., Huber, D., et al. (2021). TOI-257b (HD 19916b): a warm sub-saturn orbiting an evolved F-type star. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 502(3), 3704–3722.
Abstract: We report the discovery of a warm sub-Saturn, TOI-257b (HD 19916b), based on data from NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The transit signal was detected by TESS and confirmed to be of planetary origin based on radial velocity observations. An analysis of the TESS photometry, the MINERVA-Australis, FEROS, and HARPS radial velocities, and the asteroseismic data of the stellar oscillations reveals that TOI-257b has a mass of M-P = 0.138 +/- 0.023M(J) (43.9 +/- 7.3 M-circle plus), a radius of R-P = 0.639 +/- 0.013 R-J (7.16 +/- 0.15 R-circle plus), bulk density of 0.65(-0.11)(+0.12) (cgs), and period 18.38818(-0.00084)(+0.00085) days. TOI-257b orbits a bright (V = 7.612 mag) somewhat evolved late F-type star with M-* = 1.390 +/- 0.046(Msun), R-* = 1.888 +/- 0.033 R-sun, T-eff = 6075 +/- 90 K, and vsin i = 11.3 +/- 0.5 kms(-1). Additionally, we find hints for a second non-transiting sub-Saturn mass planet on a similar to 71 day orbit using the radial velocity data. This system joins the ranks of a small number of exoplanet host stars (similar to 100) that have been characterized with asteroseismology. Warm sub-Saturns are rare in the known sample of exoplanets, and thus the discovery of TOI-257b is important in the context of future work studying the formation and migration history of similar planetary systems.
Carleo, I., Gandolfi, D., Barragan, O., Livingston, J. H., Persson, C. M., Lam, K. W. F., et al. (2020). The Multiplanet System TOI-421*. Astron. J., 160(3), 23 pp.
Abstract: We report the discovery of a warm Neptune and a hot sub-Neptune transiting TOI-421 (BD-14 1137, TIC 94986319), a bright (V = 9.9) G9 dwarf star in a visual binary system observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) space mission in Sectors 5 and 6. We performed ground-based follow-up observations-comprised of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope transit photometry, NIRC2 adaptive optics imaging, and FIbre-fed Echelle Spectrograph, CORALIE, High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher, High Resolution echelle Spectrometer, and Planet Finder Spectrograph high-precision Doppler measurements-and confirmed the planetary nature of the 16 day transiting candidate announced by the TESS team. We discovered an additional radial velocity signal with a period of five days induced by the presence of a second planet in the system, which we also found to transit its host star. We found that the inner mini-Neptune, TOI-421 b, has an orbital period of P-b = 5.19672 +/- 0.00049 days, a mass of M-b = 7.17 +/- 0.66 M-circle plus, and a radius of R-b = R-circle plus, whereas the outer warm Neptune, TOI-421 c, has a period of P-c = 16.06819 +/- 0.00035 days, a mass of M-c = 16.42(-1.04)(+1.06)M(circle plus), a radius of R-c = 5.09(-0.15)(+0.16)R(circle plus), and a density of rho(c) = 0.685(-0.072)(+0.080) cm(-3). With its characteristics, the outer planet (rho(c) = 0.685(-0.0072)(+0.080) cm(-3)) is placed in the intriguing class of the super-puffy mini-Neptunes. TOI-421 b and TOI-421 c are found to be well-suited for atmospheric characterization. Our atmospheric simulations predict significant Ly alpha transit absorption, due to strong hydrogen escape in both planets, as well as the presence of detectable CH4 in the atmosphere of TOI-421 c if equilibrium chemistry is assumed.