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Becker, F., Kosowski, A., Matamala, M., Nisse, N., Rapaport, I., Suchan, K., et al. (2015). Allowing each node to communicate only once in a distributed system: shared whiteboard models. Distrib. Comput., 28(3), 189–200.
Abstract: In this paper we study distributed algorithms on massive graphs where links represent a particular relationship between nodes (for instance, nodes may represent phone numbers and links may indicate telephone calls). Since such graphs are massive they need to be processed in a distributed way. When computing graph-theoretic properties, nodes become natural units for distributed computation. Links do not necessarily represent communication channels between the computing units and therefore do not restrict the communication flow. Our goal is to model and analyze the computational power of such distributed systems where one computing unit is assigned to each node. Communication takes place on a whiteboard where each node is allowed to write at most one message. Every node can read the contents of the whiteboard and, when activated, can write one small message based on its local knowledge. When the protocol terminates its output is computed from the final contents of the whiteboard. We describe four synchronization models for accessing the whiteboard. We show that message size and synchronization power constitute two orthogonal hierarchies for these systems. We exhibit problems that separate these models, i.e., that can be solved in one model but not in a weaker one, even with increased message size. These problems are related to maximal independent set and connectivity. We also exhibit problems that require a given message size independently of the synchronization model.
Kosowski, A., Li, B., Nisse, N., & Suchan, K. (2015). k-Chordal Graphs: From Cops and Robber to Compact Routing via Treewidth. Algorithmica, 72(3), 758–777.
Abstract: Cops and robber games, introduced by Winkler and Nowakowski (in Discrete Math. 43(2-3), 235-239, 1983) and independently defined by Quilliot (in J. Comb. Theory, Ser. B 38(1), 89-92, 1985), concern a team of cops that must capture a robber moving in a graph. We consider the class of k-chordal graphs, i.e., graphs with no induced (chordless) cycle of length greater than k, ka parts per thousand yen3. We prove that k-1 cops are always sufficient to capture a robber in k-chordal graphs. This leads us to our main result, a new structural decomposition for a graph class including k-chordal graphs. We present a polynomial-time algorithm that, given a graph G and ka parts per thousand yen3, either returns an induced cycle larger than k in G, or computes a tree-decomposition of G, each bag of which contains a dominating path with at most k-1 vertices. This allows us to prove that any k-chordal graph with maximum degree Delta has treewidth at most (k-1)(Delta-1)+2, improving the O(Delta(Delta-1) (k-3)) bound of Bodlaender and Thilikos (Discrete Appl. Math. 79(1-3), 45-61, 1997. Moreover, any graph admitting such a tree-decomposition has small hyperbolicity). As an application, for any n-vertex graph admitting such a tree-decomposition, we propose a compact routing scheme using routing tables, addresses and headers of size O(klog Delta+logn) bits and achieving an additive stretch of O(klog Delta). As far as we know, this is the first routing scheme with O(klog Delta+logn)-routing tables and small additive stretch for k-chordal graphs.
Keywords: Treewidth; Chordality; Compact routing; Cops and robber games