Asenjo, F. A., & Mahajan, S. M. (2015). Relativistic quantum vorticity of the quadratic form of the Dirac equation. Phys. Scr., 90(1), 4 pp.
Abstract: We explore the fluid version of the quadratic form of the Dirac equation, sometimes called the FeynmanGellMann equation. The dynamics of the quantum spinor field is represented by equations of motion for the fluid density, the velocity field, and the spin field. In analogy with classical relativistic and nonrelativistic quantum theories, the fully relativistic fluid formulation of this equation allows a vortex dynamics. The vortical form is described by a total tensor field that is the weighted combination of the inertial, electromagnetic and quantum forces. The dynamics contrives the quadratic form of the Dirac equation as a total vorticity free system.

Asenjo, F. A., & Mahajan, S. M. (2019). Diamagnetic field states in cosmological plasmas. Phys. Rev. E, 99(5), 7 pp.
Abstract: Using a generally covariant electrovortic (magnetofluid) formalism for relativistic plasmas, the dynamical evolution of a generalized vorticity (a combination of the magnetic and kinematic parts) is studied in a cosmological context. We derive macroscopic vorticity and magnetic field structures that can emerge in spatial equilibrium configurations of the relativistic plasma. These fields, however, evolve in time. These magnetic and velocity fields, selfconsistently sustained in a plasma with arbitrary thermodynamics, constitute a diamagnetic state in the expanding universe. In particular, we explore a special class of magnetic and velocity field structures supported by a plasma in which the generalized vorticity vanishes. We derive a highly interesting characteristic of such “superconductorlike” fields in a cosmological plasmas in the radiation era in the early universe. In that case, the fields grow proportional to the scale factor, establishing a deep connection between the expanding universe and the primordial magnetic fields.

Asenjo, F. A., & Mahajan, S. M. (2020). Resonant interaction between dispersive gravitational waves and scalar massive particles. Phys. Rev. D, 101(6), 4 pp.
Abstract: The KleinGordon equation is solved in the curved background spacetime created by a dispersive gravitational wave. Unlike solutions of perturbed Einstein equations in vacuum, dispersive gravitational waves do not travel exactly at the speed of light. As a consequence, the gravitational wave can resonantly exchange energy with scalar massive particles. Some details of the resonant interaction are displayed in a calculation demonstrating how relativistic particles (modeled by the KleinGordon equation), feeding on such gravitational waves, may be driven to extreme energies.

Asenjo, F. A., Comisso, L., & Mahajan, S. M. (2015). Generalized magnetofluid connections in pair plasmas. Phys. Plasmas, 22(12), 4 pp.
Abstract: We extend the magnetic connection theorem of ideal magnetohydrodynamics to nonideal relativistic pair plasmas. Adopting a generalized Ohm's law, we prove the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved by the plasma dynamics. We show that these connections are related to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields. The generalized magnetofluid connections set important constraints on the plasma dynamics by forbidding transitions between configurations with different magnetofluid connectivity. An approximated solution is explicitly shown where the corrections due to current inertial effects are found. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Braun, S., Asenjo, F. A., & Mahajan, S. M. (2014). Comment on “SpinGradientDriven Light Amplification in a Quantum Plasma” Reply. Phys. Rev. Lett., 112(12), 1 pp.

Mahajan, S. M., & Asenjo, F. A. (2015). Hot Fluids and Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics. Int. J. Theor. Phys., 54(5), 1435–1449.
Abstract: A hot relativistic fluid is viewed as a collection of quantum objects that represent interacting elementary particles. We present a conceptual framework for deriving nonlinear equations of motion obeyed by these hypothesized objects. A uniform phenomenological prescription, to affect the quantum transition from a corresponding classical system, is invoked to derive the nonlinear Schrodinger, KleinGordon, and PauliSchrodinger and FeynmanGellMaan equations. It is expected that the emergent hypothetical nonlinear quantum mechanics would advance, in a fundamental way, both the conceptual understanding and computational abilities, particularly, in the field of extremely high energydensity physics.

Mahajan, S. M., & Asenjo, F. A. (2016). A statistical model for relativistic quantum fluids interacting with an intense electromagnetic wave. Phys. Plasmas, 23(5), 12 pp.
Abstract: A statistical model for relativistic quantum fluids interacting with an arbitrary amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave is developed in two steps. First, the energy spectrum and the wave function for a quantum particle (Klein Gordon and Dirac) embedded in the electromagnetic wave are calculated by solving the appropriate eigenvalue problem. The energy spectrum is anisotropic in the momentum K and reflects the electromagnetic field through the renormalization of the rest mass m to M = root m(2) + q(2)Q(2). Based on this energy spectrum of this quantum particle plus field combination (QPF), a statistical mechanics model of the quantum fluid made up of these weakly interacting QPF is developed. Preliminary investigations of the formalism yield highly interesting resultsa new scale for temperature, and fundamental modification of the dispersion relation of the electromagnetic wave. It is expected that this formulation could, inter alia, uniquely advance our understanding of laboratory as well as astrophysical systems where one encounters arbitrarily large electromagnetic fields. (C) 2016 AIP Publishing LLC.

Mahajan, S. M., & Asenjo, F. A. (2017). Explicitly covariant dispersion relations and selfinduced transparency. J. Plasma Phys., 83, 15 pp.
Abstract: Explicitly covariant dispersion relations for a variety of plasma waves in unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas are derived in a systematic manner from a fully covariant plasma formulation. One needs to invoke relatively little known invariant combinations constructed from the ambient electromagnetic fields and the wave vector to accomplish the program. The implication of this work applied to the self induced transparency effect is discussed. Some problems arising from the inconsistent use of relativity are pointed out.

Mahajan, S. M., & Asenjo, F. A. (2018). General connected and reconnected fields in plasmas. Phys. Plasmas, 25(2), 7 pp.
Abstract: For plasma dynamics, more encompassing than the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) approximation, the foundational concepts of “magnetic reconnection” may require deep revisions because, in the larger dynamics, magnetic field is no longer connected to the fluid lines; it is replaced by more general fields (one for each plasma specie) that are weighted combination of the electromagnetic and the thermalvortical fields. We study the twofluid plasma dynamics plasma expressed in two different sets of variables: the twofluid (2F) description in terms of individual fluid velocities, and the onefluid (1F) variables comprising the plasma bulk motion and plasma current. In the 2F description, a Connection Theorem is readily established; we show that, for each specie, there exists a Generalized (Magnetofluid/ElectroVortic) field that is frozenin the fluid and consequently remains, forever, connected to the flow. This field is an expression of the unification of the electromagnetic, and fluid forces (kinematic and thermal) for each specie. Since the magnetic field, by itself, is not connected in the first place, its reconnection is never forbidden and does not require any external agency (like resistivity). In fact, a magnetic field reconnection (local destruction) must be interpreted simply as a consequence of the preservation of the dynamical structure of the unified field. In the 1F plasma description, however, it is shown that there is no exact physically meaningful Connection Theorem; a general and exact field does not exist, which remains connected to the bulk plasma flow. It is also shown that the helicity conservation and the existence of a Connected field follow from the same dynamical structure; the dynamics must be expressible as an ideal Ohm's law with a physical velocity. This new perspective, emerging from the analysis of the post MHD physics, must force us to reexamine the meaning as well as our understanding of magnetic reconnection. Published by AIP Publishing.

Mahajan, S. M., & Asenjo, F. A. (2022). Interacting quantum and classical waves: Resonant and nonresonant energy transfer to electrons immersed in an intense electromagnetic wave. Phys. Plasmas, 29(2), 022107.
Abstract: Dynamics of electrons subjected to a constant amplitude classical electromagnetic (EM) wave is investigated as a fundamental, representative problem in the physics of interacting quantum and classical waves. In the nonrelativistic regime (electrons as Schrodinger waves), the electron energy acquires a constant and a time dependent part. Driven by EM waves, both parts scale strongly with the amplitude, but we expect no resonant enhancement since the parallel electron “speed ” of nonrelativistic electrons could never match the wave phase velocity. In the relativistic regime (electron as a KleinGordon wave), however, a class of electron waves (with parallel speed matching the EM phase speed) are resonantly excited to extremely high energies. Such a direct resonant energy transfer from intense electromagnetic waves constitutes a mechanism that could, in principle, power the most energetic of cosmic rays (this mechanism will work on protons just as well). Some predictions of the theory will, hopefully, be tested in laboratory laser experiments. The nonrelativistic calculations will also be examined in the context of recent experiments using photoninduced nearfield electron microscopy in detail.

Mahajan, S. M., & Asenjo, F. A. (2023). Parametric amplification of electromagnetic plasma waves in resonance with a dispersive background gravitational wave. Phys. Rev. E, 107(3), 035205.
Abstract: It is shown that a subluminal electromagnetic plasma wave, propagating in phase with a background subluminal gravitational wave in a dispersive medium, can undergo parametric amplification. For these phenomena to occur, the dispersive characteristics of the two waves must properly match. The response frequencies of the two waves (medium dependent) must lie within a definite and restrictive range. The combined dynamics is represented by a WhitakerHill equation, the quintessential model for parametric instabilities. The exponential growth of the electromagnetic wave is displayed at the resonance; the plasma wave grows at the expense of the background gravitational wave. Different physical scenarios, where the phenomenon can be possible, are discussed.

Mahajan, S. M., Asenjo, F. A., & Hazeltine, R. D. (2015). Comparison of the electronspin force and radiation reaction force. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 446(4), 4112–4115.
Abstract: It is shown that the forces that originate from the electronspin interacting with the electromagnetic field can play, along with the Lorentz force, a fundamentally important role in determining the electron motion in a high energy density plasma embedded in strong highfrequency radiation, a situation that pertains to both laserproduced and astrophysical systems. These forces, for instance, dominate the standard radiation reaction force as long as there is a 'sufficiently' strong ambient magnetic field for affecting spin alignment. The inclusion of spin forces in any advanced modelling of electron dynamics pertaining to high energy density systems (for instance in particleincell codes), therefore, is a must.

Qadir, A., Asenjo, F. A., & Mahajan, S. M. (2014). Magnetic field seed generation in plasmas around charged and rotating black holes. Phys. Scr., 89(8), 7 pp.
Abstract: Previous work by the authors introduced the possibility of generating seed magnetic fields by spacetime curvature and applied it in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole. It was pointed out that it would be worthwhile to consider the effect in other background geometries and particularly in the vicinity of a rotating black hole, which is generically to be expected, astrophysically. In this paper that suggestion is followed up and we calculate generated magnetic field seed due to ReissnerNordstrom and Kerr spacetimes. The conditions for the drive for the seed of a magnetic field is obtained for charged black holes, finding that in the horizon the drive vanishes. Also, the psi Nforce produced by the Kerr black hole is obtained and its relation with the magnetic field seed is discussed, producing a more effective drive.
