
Goles, E., MontalvaMedel, M., MacLean, S., & Mortveit, H. (2018). Block Invariance in a Family of Elementary Cellular Automata. J. Cell. Autom., 13(12), 15–32.
Abstract: We study the steady state invariance of elementary cellular automata (ECA) under different deterministic updating schemes. Specifically, we study a family of eleven ECA whose steady state invariance were left under conjecture in [2].



Goles, E., MontalvaMedel, M., Montealegre, P., & RiosWilson, M. (2022). On the complexity of generalized Q2R automaton. Adv. Appl. Math., 138, 102355.
Abstract: We study the dynamic and complexity of the generalized Q2R automaton. We show the existence of nonpolynomial cycles as well as its capability to simulate with the synchronous update the classical version of the automaton updated under a block sequential update scheme. Furthermore, we show that the decision problem consisting in determine if a given node in the network changes its state is PHard.



Goles, E., MontalvaMedel, M., Mortveit, H., & RamirezFlandes, S. (2015). Block Invariance in Elementary Cellular Automata. J. Cell. Autom., 10(12), 119–135.
Abstract: Consider an elementary cellular automaton (ECA) under periodic boundary conditions. Given an arbitrary partition of the set of vertices we consider the block updating, i.e. the automaton's local function is applied from the first to the last set of the partition such that vertices belonging to the same set are updated synchronously. The automaton is said blockinvariant if the set of periodic configurations is independent of the choice of the block updating. When the sets of the partition are singletons we have the sequential updating: vertices are updated one by one following a permutation pi. In [5] the authors analyzed the piinvariance of the 2(8) = 256 possible ECA rules (or the 88 nonredundant rules subset). Their main result was that for all n > 3, exactly 41 of these nonredundant rules are piinvariant. In this paper we determine the subset of these 41 rules that are block invariant. More precisely, for all n > 3, exactly 15 of these rules are block invariant. Moreover, we deduce that block invariance also implies that the attractor structure itself is independent of the choice of the block update.



MacLean, S., MontalvaMedel, M., & Goles, E. (2019). Block invariance and reversibility of one dimensional linear cellular automata. Adv. Appl. Math., 105, 83–101.
Abstract: Consider a onedimensional, binary cellular automaton f (the CA rule), where its n nodes are updated according to a deterministic block update (blocks that group all the nodes and such that its order is given by the order of the blocks from left to right and nodes inside a block are updated synchronously). A CA rule is block invariant over a family F of block updates if its set of periodic points does not change, whatever the block update of F is considered. In this work, we study the block invariance of linear CA rules by means of the property of reversibility of the automaton because such a property implies that every configuration has a unique predecessor, so, it is periodic. Specifically, we extend the study of reversibility done for the Wolfram elementary CA rules 90 and 150 as well as, we analyze the reversibility of linear rules with neighbourhood radius 2 by using matrix algebra techniques. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.



MontalvaMedel, M., de Oliveira, P. P. B., & Goles, E. (2018). A portfolio of classification problems by onedimensional cellular automata, over cyclic binary configurations and parallel update. Nat. Comput., 17(3), 663–671.
Abstract: Decision problems addressed by cellular automata have been historically expressed either as determining whether initial configurations would belong to a given language, or as classifying the initial configurations according to a property in them. Unlike traditional approaches in language recognition, classification problems have typically relied upon cyclic configurations and fully paralell (twoway) update of the cells, which render the action of the cellular automaton relatively less controllable and difficult to analyse. Although the notion of cyclic languages have been studied in the wider realm of formal languages, only recently a more systematic attempt has come into play in respect to cellular automata with fully parallel update. With the goal of contributing to this effort, we propose a unified definition of classification problem for onedimensional, binary cellular automata, from which various known problems are couched in and novel ones are defined, and analyse the solvability of the new problems. Such a unified perspective aims at increasing existing knowledge about classification problems by cellular automata over cyclic configurations and parallel update.



MontalvaMedel, M., Ledger, T., Ruz, G. A., & Goles, E. (2021). Lac Operon Boolean Models: Dynamical Robustness and Alternative Improvements. Mathematics, 9(6), 600.
Abstract: In VelizCuba and Stigler 2011, Boolean models were proposed for the lac operon in Escherichia coli capable of reproducing the operon being OFF, ON and bistable for three (low, medium and high) and two (low and high) parameters, representing the concentration ranges of lactose and glucose, respectively. Of these 6 possible combinations of parameters, 5 produce results that match with the biological experiments of Ozbudak et al., 2004. In the remaining one, the models predict the operon being OFF while biological experiments show a bistable behavior. In this paper, we first explore the robustness of two such models in the sense of how much its attractors change against any deterministic update schedule. We prove mathematically that, in cases where there is no bistability, all the dynamics in both models lack limit cycles while, when bistability appears, one model presents 30% of its dynamics with limit cycles while the other only 23%. Secondly, we propose two alternative improvements consisting of biologically supported modifications; one in which both models match with Ozbudak et al., 2004 in all 6 combinations of parameters and, the other one, where we increase the number of parameters to 9, matching in all these cases with the biological experiments of Ozbudak et al., 2004.



MontalvaMedel, M., Rica, S., & Urbina, F. (2020). Phase space classification of an Ising cellular automaton: The Q2R model. Chaos Solitons Fractals, 133, 14 pp.
Abstract: An exact classification of the different dynamical behaviors that exhibits the phase space of a reversible and conservative cellular automaton, the socalled Q2R model, is shown in this paper. Q2R is a cellular automaton which is a dynamical variation of the Ising model in statistical physics and whose space of configurations grows exponentially with the system size. As a consequence of the intrinsic reversibility of the model, the phase space is composed only by configurations that belong to a fixed point or a cycle. In this work, we classify them in four types accordingly to well differentiated topological characteristics. Three of them which we call of type SI, SII, and SIII share a symmetry property, while the fourth, which we call of type AS does not. Specifically, we prove that any configuration of Q2R belongs to one of the four previous types of cycles. Moreover, at a combinatorial level, we can determine the number of cycles for some small periods which are almost always present in the Q2R. Finally, we provide a general overview of the resulting decomposition of the arbitrary size Q2R phase space and, in addition, we realize an exhaustive study of a small Ising system (4 x 4) which is thoroughly analyzed under this new framework, and where simple mathematical tools are introduced in order to have a more direct understanding of the Q2R dynamics and to rediscover known properties like the energy conservation. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



Perrot, K., MontalvaMedel, M., de Oliveira, P. P. B., & Ruivo, E. L. P. (2020). Maximum sensitivity to update schedules of elementary cellular automata over periodic configurations. Nat. Comput., 19(1), 51–90.
Abstract: This work is a thoughtful extension of the ideas sketched in Montalva et al. (AUTOMATA 2017 exploratory papers proceedings, 2017), aiming at classifying elementary cellular automata (ECA) according to their maximal onestep sensitivity to changes in the schedule of cells update. It provides a complete classification of the ECA rule space for all period sizes n[ 9 and, together with the classification for all period sizes n <= 9 presented in Montalva et al. (Chaos Solitons Fractals 113:209220, 2018), closes this problem and opens further questionings. Most of the 256 ECA rule's sensitivity is proved or disproved to be maximum thanks to an automatic application of basic methods. We formalize meticulous case disjunctions that lead to the results, and patch failing cases for some rules with simple arguments. This gives new insights on the dynamics of ECA rules depending on the proof method employed, as for the last rules 45 and 105 requiring o0011THORN induction patterns.



Ruivo, E. L. P., de Oliveira, P. P. B., MontalvaMedel, M., & Perrot, K. (2020). Maximum sensitivity to update schedules of elementary cellular automata over infinite configurations. Inf. Comput., 274(SI), 104538.
Abstract: Cellular automata are discrete dynamical systems with locally defined behaviour, well known as simple models of complex systems. Classically, their dynamics derive from synchronously iterated rules over finite or infinite configurations; however, since for many natural systems to be modelled, asynchrony seems more plausible, asynchronous iteration of the rules has gained a considerable attention in recent years. One question in this context is how changing the update schedule of rule applications affects the global behaviour of the system. In particular, previous works addressed the notion of maximum sensitivity to changes in the update schemes for finite lattices. Here, we extend the notion to infinite lattices, and classify elementary cellular automata space according to such a property.



Ruivo, E. L. P., MontalvaMedel, M., de Oliveira, P. P. B., & Perrot, K. (2018). Characterisation of the elementary cellular automata in terms of their maximum sensitivity to all possible asynchronous updates. Chaos Solitons Fractals, 113, 209–220.
Abstract: Cellular automata are fullydiscrete dynamical systems with global behaviour depending upon their locally specified state transitions. They have been extensively studied as models of complex systems as well as objects of mathematical and computational interest. Classically, the local rule of a cellular automaton is iterated synchronously over the entire configuration. However, the question of how asynchronous updates change the behaviour of a cellular automaton has become a major issue in recent years. Here, we analyse the elementary cellular automata rule space in terms of how many different onestep trajectories a rule would entail when taking into account all possible deterministic ways of updating the rule, for one time step, over all possible initial configurations. More precisely, we provide a characterisation of the elementary cellular automata, by means of their onestep maximum sensitivity to all possible update schedules, that is, the property that any change in the update schedule causes the rule's onestep trajectories also to change after one iteration. Although the onestep maximum sensitivity does not imply that the remainder of the timeevolutions will be distinct, it is a necessary condition for that. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

