|Home||<< 1 >>|
Liu, C. Z., Cote, P., Peng, E. W., Roediger, J., Zhang, H. X., Ferrarese, L., et al. (2020). The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XXXIV. Ultracompact Dwarf Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 250(1), 28 pp.
Abstract: We present a study of ultracompact dwarf (UCD) galaxies in the Virgo cluster based mainly on imaging from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). Using similar to 100 deg(2) of u*giz imaging, we have identified more than 600 candidate UCDs, from the core of Virgo out to its virial radius. Candidates have been selected through a combination of magnitudes, ellipticities, colors, surface brightnesses, half-light radii, and, when available, radial velocities. Candidates were also visually validated from deep NGVS images. Subsamples of varying completeness and purity have been defined to explore the properties of UCDs and compare to those of globular clusters and the nuclei of dwarf galaxies with the aim of delineating the nature and origins of UCDs. From a surface density map, we find the UCDs to be mostly concentrated within Virgo's main subclusters, around its brightest galaxies. We identify several subsamples of UCDs-i.e., the brightest, largest, and those with the most pronounced and/or asymmetric envelopes-that could hold clues to the origin of UCDs and possible evolutionary links with dwarf nuclei. We find some evidence for such a connection from the existence of diffuse envelopes around some UCDs and comparisons of radial distributions of UCDs and nucleated galaxies within the cluster.
Keywords: Ultracompact dwarf galaxies; Globular star clusters; Galaxy nuclei; Dwarf elliptical galaxies; Virgo Cluster; Galaxy formation
Ko, Y., Peng, E. W., Cote, P., Ferrarese, L., Liu, C. Z., Longobardi, A., et al. (2022). The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XXXIII. Stellar Population Gradients in the Virgo Cluster Core Globular Cluster System. Astrophys. J., 931(2), 120.
Abstract: We present a study of the stellar populations of globular clusters (GCs) in the Virgo Cluster core with a homogeneous spectroscopic catalog of 692 GCs within a major-axis distance R (maj) = 840 kpc from M87. We investigate radial and azimuthal variations in the mean age, total metallicity, [Fe/H], and alpha-element abundance of blue (metal-poor) and red (metal-rich) GCs using their co-added spectra. We find that the blue GCs have a steep radial gradient in [Z/H] within R (maj) = 165 kpc, with roughly equal contributions from [Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe], and flat gradients beyond. By contrast, the red GCs show a much shallower gradient in [Z/H], which is entirely driven by [Fe/H]. We use GC-tagged Illustris simulations to demonstrate an accretion scenario where more massive satellites (with more metal- and alpha-rich GCs) sink further into the central galaxy than less massive ones, and where the gradient flattening occurs because of the low GC occupation fraction of low-mass dwarfs disrupted at larger distances. The dense environment around M87 may also cause the steep [alpha/Fe] gradient of the blue GCs, mirroring what is seen in the dwarf galaxy population. The progenitors of red GCs have a narrower mass range than those of blue GCs, which makes their gradients shallower. We also explore spatial inhomogeneity in GC abundances, finding that the red GCs to the northwest of M87 are slightly more metal-rich. Future observations of GC stellar population gradients will be useful diagnostics of halo merger histories.
Keywords: EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES; SPACE-TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS; PLANETARY-NEBULA SYSTEM; DIFFUSE OPTICAL LIGHT; LUMINOSITY FUNCTION; INTEGRATED