JerezHanckes, C., Martínez, I. A., Pettersson, I., & Volodymyr, R. (2021). Multiscale Analysis of Myelinated Axons. In SEMA SIMAI Springer Series (Vol. 10, pp. 17–35). Springer, Cham.
Abstract: We consider a threedimensional model for a myelinated neuron, which includes Hodgkin–Huxley ordinary differential equations to represent membrane dynamics at Ranvier nodes (unmyelinated areas). Assuming a periodic microstructure with alternating myelinated and unmyelinated parts, we use homogenization methods to derive a onedimensional nonlinear cable equation describing the potential propagation along the neuron. Since the resistivity of intracellular and extracellular domains is much smaller than the myelin resistivity, we assume this last one to be a perfect insulator and impose homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions on the myelin boundary. In contrast to the case when the conductivity of the myelin is nonzero, no additional terms appear in the onedimensional limit equation, and the model geometry affects the limit solution implicitly through an auxiliary cell problem used to compute the effective coefficient. We present numerical examples revealing the forecasted dependence of the effective coefficient on the size of the Ranvier node.

JerezHanckes, C., Pettersson, I., & Rybalko, V. (2020). Derivation Of Cable Equation By Multiscale Analysis For A Model Of Myelinated Axons. Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst.Ser. B, 25(3), 815–839.
Abstract: We derive a onedimensional cable model for the electric potential propagation along an axon. Since the typical thickness of an axon is much smaller than its length, and the myelin sheath is distributed periodically along the neuron, we simplify the problem geometry to a thin cylinder with alternating myelinated and unmyelinated parts. Both the microstructure period and the cylinder thickness are assumed to be of order epsilon, a small positive parameter. Assuming a nonzero conductivity of the myelin sheath, we find a critical scaling with respect to epsilon which leads to the appearance of an additional potential in the homogenized nonlinear cable equation. This potential contains information about the geometry of the myelin sheath in the original threedimensional model.
