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Martinez, C., Briones, F., Rojas, P., Aguilar, C., Guzman, D., & Ordonez, S. (2017). Microstructural and mechanical characterization of copper, nickel, and Cu-based alloys obtained by mechanical alloying and hot pressing. Mater. Lett., 209, 509–512.
Abstract: Mechanical alloying and uniaxial compaction were used to obtain configurations of: elemental powders of Cu and Ni; binary alloys (Cu-Ni and Cu-Zr); and a ternary alloy (Cu-Ni-Zr) under the same mechanical milling and hot pressing conditions. Microstructure and mechanical properties of these were investigated. According to XRD results, hot pressing process increases crystallite size and decreases microstrain in the compact samples, due to the release of crystalline defects without crystallization of amorphous alloys. The milled powder samples have a higher hardness than the unmilled samples, since crystal defects are incorporated into microstructural refinement during milling. The ternary alloy Cu-40Ni-10Zr had the highest hardness of all systems studied, reaching 689 HV0.5. Compression tests at 5% strain determined that Zr-containing samples (amorphous phase) become more fragile after processing, and have the lowest values of compressive strength. In contrast, Ni samples and Cu-Ni binary alloys are more resistant to compression. (