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Kraiser, T., Stuardo, M., Manzano, M., Ledger, T., & Gonzalez, B. (2013). Simultaneous assessment of the effects of an herbicide on the triad: rhizobacterial community, an herbicide degrading soil bacterium and their plant host. Plant Soil, 366(1-2), 377–388.
Abstract: This work addresses the relevant effects that one single compound, used as model herbicide, provokes on the activity/survival of a suitable herbicide degrading model bacterium and on a plant that hosts this bacterium and its bacterial rhizospheric community. The effects of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on Acacia caven hosting the 2,4-D degrading bacterium Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134, and its rhizospheric microbiota, were simultaneously addressed in plant soil microcosms, and followed by culture dependent and independent procedures, herbicide removal tests, bioprotection assays and use of encapsulated bacterial cells. The herbicide provokes deleterious effects on the plant, which are significantly diminished by the presence of the plant associated C. pinatubonensis, especially with encapsulated cells. This improvement correlated with increased 2,4-D degradation rates. The herbicide significantly changes the structure of the A. caven bacterial rhizospheric community; and it also diminishes the preference of C. pinatubonensis for the A. caven rhizosphere compared with the surrounding bulk soil. The addition of an herbicide to soil triggers a complex, although more or less predictable, suite of effects on rhizobacterial communities, herbicide degrading bacteria and their plant hosts that should be taken into account in fundamental studies and design of bio(phyto)remediation procedures.
Keywords: 2,4-D herbicide; Acacia caven; Bioremediation; Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134; Plant soil microcosms; Rhizosphere
Ledger, T., Zuniga, A., Kraiser, T., Dasencich, P., Donoso, R., Perez-Pantoja, D., et al. (2012). Aromatic compounds degradation plays a role in colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana and Acacia caven by Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 101(4), 713–723.
Abstract: Plant rhizosphere and internal tissues may constitute a relevant habitat for soil bacteria displaying high catabolic versatility towards xenobiotic aromatic compounds. Root exudates contain various molecules that are structurally related to aromatic xenobiotics and have been shown to stimulate bacterial degradation of aromatic pollutants in the rhizosphere. The ability to degrade specific aromatic components of root exudates could thus provide versatile catabolic bacteria with an advantage for rhizosphere colonization and growth. In this work, Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134, a well-known aromatic compound degrader (including the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate, 2,4-D), was shown to stably colonize Arabidopsis thaliana and Acacia caven plants both at the rhizoplane and endorhizosphere levels and to use root exudates as a sole carbon and energy source. No deleterious effects were detected on these colonized plants. When a toxic concentration of 2,4-D was applied to colonized A. caven, a marked resistance was induced in the plant, showing that strain JMP134 was both metabolically active and potentially beneficial to its host. The role for the beta-ketoadipate aromatic degradation pathway during plant root colonization by C. pinatubonensis JMP134 was investigated by gene inactivation. A C. pinatubonensis mutant derivative strain displayed a reduced ability to catabolise root exudates isolated from either plant host. In this mutant strain, a lower competence in the rhizosphere of A. caven was also shown, both in gnotobiotic in vitro cultures and in plant/soil microcosms.
Keywords: Acacia caven; Arabidopsis thaliana; Aromatic compounds; Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134; Plant growth; Rhizosphere