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Slane, J. A., Vivanco, J. F., Rose, W. E., Squire, M. W., & Ploeg, H. L. (2014). The influence of low concentrations of a water soluble poragen on the material properties, antibiotic release, and biofilm inhibition of an acrylic bone cement. Mater. Sci. Eng. C-Mater. Biol. Appl., 42, 168–176.
Abstract: Soluble particulate fillers can be incorporated into antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement in an effort to enhance antibiotic elution. Xylitol is a material that shows potential for use as a filler due to its high solubility and potential to inhibit biofilm formation. The objective of this work, therefore, was to investigate the usage of low concentrations of xylitol in a gentamicin-loaded cement. Five different cements were prepared with various xylitol loadings (0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 g) per cement unit, and the resulting impact on the mechanical properties, cumulative antibiotic release, biofilm inhibition, and thermal characteristics were quantified. Xylitol significantly increased cement porosity and a sustained increase in gentamicin elution was observed in all samples containing xylitol with a maximum cumulative release of 41.3%. Xylitol had no significant inhibitory effect on biofilm formation. All measured mechanical properties tended to decrease with increasing xylitol concentration; however, these effects were not always significant. Polymerization characteristics were consistent among all groups with no significant differences found. The results from this study indicate that xylitol-modified bone cement may not be appropriate for implant fixation but could be used in instances where sustained, increased antibiotic elution is warranted, such as in cement spacers or beads. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.