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Garmendia, M. L., Matus, O., Mondschein, S., & Kusanovic, J. P. (2018). Gestational weight gain recommendations for Chilean women: a mathematical optimization approach. Public Health, 163, 80–86.
Abstract: Objectives: We examined if the guidelines for gestational weight gain (GWG) proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) are the most suitable for Chilean women. Study design: Secondary analysis of records of single full-term births at the Dr. Sotero del Rio Hospital, Santiago, Chile, during 2003-2012 (n = 62,579). Methods: From clinical records, we obtained data regarding maternal age, height, prepregnancy and at delivery weights, pathologies during pregnancy such as gestational diabetes (GDM) and pre-eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, and number of infants born small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA). We formulated a mathematical model (MM) to determine the GWG range that maximizes the likelihood of a healthy pregnancy (HP) if the recommendation is followed. We defined an HP as one where the mother has no complications such as pre-eclampsia, GDM, SGA, or LGA. Results: Forty-six percent of women had prepregnancy overweight or obesity. The prevalence of GDM, pre-eclampsia, SGA, and LGA were 3%, 1.2%, 9%, and 12%, respectively. An HP was present in 76% of pregnancies, 79% in the underweight group, 79% in normal weight group, 74% in the overweight group, and 67% in obese women. The GWG recommendations given by the MM (14-20 kg for underweight, 6-20 kg for normal weight, 9 -11 kg for overweight, and 6-7 kg for obese) led to higher probabilities of achieving an HP than the ones obtained with the IOM recommendations. Conclusion: The adoption of GWG recommendations based on characteristics of the Chilean population might lead to better short- and long-term health results for pregnant women. (C) 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pregnancy; Weight gain; Obesity; Pregnancy high risk; Chile
Lozada, A., Calderon, F., Kasaneva, J. N., Borquez-Paredes, D., Olivares, R., Beghelli, A., et al. (2021). Impact of Amplification and Regeneration Schemes on the Blocking Performance and Energy Consumption of Wide-Area Elastic Optical Networks. IEEE Access, 9, 134355–134368.
Abstract: This paper studies the physical layer's impact on the blocking probability and energy consumption of wide-area dynamic elastic optical networks (EONs). For this purpose, we consider five network configurations, each named with a network configuration identifier (NCI) from 1 to 5, for which the Routing, Modulation Level, and Spectrum Assignment (RMLSA) problem is solved. NCI 1-4 are transparent configurations based on all-EDFA, hybrid Raman/EDFA amplifiers (with different Raman gain ratio Gamma(R)), all-DFRA, and alternating span configuration (EDFA and DFRA). NCI 5 is a translucent configuration based on all-EDFA and 3R regenerators. We model the physical layer for every network configuration to determine the maximum achievable reach of optical signals. Employing simulation, we calculate the blocking probability and the energy consumption of the different network configurations. In terms of blocking, our results show that NCI 2 and 3 offer the lowest blocking probability, with at least 1 and 3 orders of magnitude of difference with respect to NCI 1 and 5 at high and low traffic loads, respectively. In terms of energy consumption, the best performing alternatives are the ones with the worst blocking (NCI 1), while NCI 3 exhibits the highest energy consumption with NCI Gamma(R) = 0.75 following closely. This situation highlights a clear trade-off between blocking performance and energy cost that must be considered when designing a dynamic EON. Thus, we identify NCI 2 using Gamma(R) = 0.25 as a promising alternative to reduce the blocking probability significantly in wide-area dynamic EONs without a prohibitive increase in energy consumption.
Keywords: Repeaters; Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers; Energy consumption; Optical signal processing; Optical polarization; Gain; Optical pumping; Elastic optical networks; resource assignment; translucent configuration; transparent configuration