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Averbakh, I., & Pereira, J. (2018). Lateness Minimization in Pairwise Connectivity Restoration Problems. INFORMS J. Comput., 30(3), 522–538.
Abstract: A network is given whose edges need to be constructed (or restored after a disaster). The lengths of edges represent the required construction/restoration times given available resources, and one unit of length of the network can be constructed per unit of time. All points of the network are accessible for construction at any time. For each pair of vertices, a due date is given. It is required to find a construction schedule that minimizes the maximum lateness of all pairs of vertices, where the lateness of a pair is the difference between the time when the pair becomes connected by an already constructed path and the pair's due date. We introduce the problem and analyze its structural properties, present a mixedinteger linear programming formulation, develop a number of lower bounds that are integrated in a branchandbound algorithm, and discuss results of computational experiments both for instances based on randomly generated networks and for instances based on 2010 Chilean earthquake data.

Carvallo, C., JalilVega, F., & Moreno, R. (2023). A multienergy multimicrogrid system planning model for decarbonisation and decontamination of isolated systems. Appl. Energy, 343, 121143.
Abstract: Decarbonising and decontaminating remote regions in the world presents several challenges. Many of these regions feature isolation, dispersed demand in large areas, and a lack of economic resources that impede the development of robust and sustainable networks. Furthermore, isolated systems in the developing world are mostly based on diesel generation for electricity, and firewood and liquefied petroleum gas for heating, as these options do not require a significant infrastructure cost. In this context, we present a stochastic multienergy multimicrogrid system planning model that integrates electricity, heat and hydrogen networks in isolated systems. The model is stochastic to capture uncertainty in renewable generation outputs, particularly hydro and wind, and thus design a multienergy system proved secured against such uncertainty. The model also features two distinct constraints to limit the emissions of CO2 (for decarbonisation) and particulate matter (for decontamination), and incorporates firewood as a heating source. Moreover, given that the focus is on lowvoltage networks, we introduce a fully linear AC power flow equations set, allowing the planning model to remain tractable. The model is applied to a realworld case study to design a multienergy multimicrogrid system in an isolated region in Chilean Patagonia. In a case with a zero limit over direct CO2 emissions, the total system's cost increases by 34% with respect to an unconstrained case. In a case with a zero limit over particulate matter emissions, the total system's cost increases by 189%. Finally, although an absolute zero limit over both, particulate matter and direct CO2 emissions, leads to a total system's cost increase of 650%, important benefits in terms of decarbonisation and decontamination can be achieved at marginal cost increments.

Ko, Y., Peng, E. W., Cote, P., Ferrarese, L., Liu, C. Z., Longobardi, A., et al. (2022). The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XXXIII. Stellar Population Gradients in the Virgo Cluster Core Globular Cluster System. Astrophys. J., 931(2), 120.
Abstract: We present a study of the stellar populations of globular clusters (GCs) in the Virgo Cluster core with a homogeneous spectroscopic catalog of 692 GCs within a majoraxis distance R (maj) = 840 kpc from M87. We investigate radial and azimuthal variations in the mean age, total metallicity, [Fe/H], and alphaelement abundance of blue (metalpoor) and red (metalrich) GCs using their coadded spectra. We find that the blue GCs have a steep radial gradient in [Z/H] within R (maj) = 165 kpc, with roughly equal contributions from [Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe], and flat gradients beyond. By contrast, the red GCs show a much shallower gradient in [Z/H], which is entirely driven by [Fe/H]. We use GCtagged Illustris simulations to demonstrate an accretion scenario where more massive satellites (with more metal and alpharich GCs) sink further into the central galaxy than less massive ones, and where the gradient flattening occurs because of the low GC occupation fraction of lowmass dwarfs disrupted at larger distances. The dense environment around M87 may also cause the steep [alpha/Fe] gradient of the blue GCs, mirroring what is seen in the dwarf galaxy population. The progenitors of red GCs have a narrower mass range than those of blue GCs, which makes their gradients shallower. We also explore spatial inhomogeneity in GC abundances, finding that the red GCs to the northwest of M87 are slightly more metalrich. Future observations of GC stellar population gradients will be useful diagnostics of halo merger histories.
