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Nam, M., Park, Y., Lee, C., Kim, G., Larrain, F. A., Fuente-Hernandez, C., et al. (2023). Single-layer organic photovoltaics fabricated via solution-based electrical doping of ternary bulk heterojunction films. Chem. Eng. J., 466, 143340.
Abstract: The commercial viability of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) can be improved by simplifying their device geometry and easing fabrication complexity. Here, we demonstrate that solution-based p-type electrical doping of ternary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films, which comprise 2 donor polymers and 1 fullerene acceptor (2D:1A), enables the realization of efficient single-layer OPVs. Systematic and detailed investigations of the optoelectronic charac-teristics of films with varying donor ratios, and their photovoltaic performance, demonstrate p-type electrical doping via post-process immersion into a 12-molybdophosphoric acid hydrate (PMA) solution, resulting in a reduced trap density and charge recombination without significantly changing the BHJ morphology. Further-more, PMA doping of films comprising optimized ternary blend compositions and polyethylenimine enables the demonstration of single-layer OPVs with economic top electrode metals and a high level of performance under outdoor and indoor illumination conditions. These PMA-doped 2D:1A BHJ films are an attractive platform to reduce the efficiency-cost gap and accelerate the commercialization of OPVs for emerging applications.