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Lozada, A., Calderon, F., Kasaneva, J. N., Borquez-Paredes, D., Olivares, R., Beghelli, A., et al. (2021). Impact of Amplification and Regeneration Schemes on the Blocking Performance and Energy Consumption of Wide-Area Elastic Optical Networks. IEEE Access, 9, 134355–134368.
Abstract: This paper studies the physical layer's impact on the blocking probability and energy consumption of wide-area dynamic elastic optical networks (EONs). For this purpose, we consider five network configurations, each named with a network configuration identifier (NCI) from 1 to 5, for which the Routing, Modulation Level, and Spectrum Assignment (RMLSA) problem is solved. NCI 1-4 are transparent configurations based on all-EDFA, hybrid Raman/EDFA amplifiers (with different Raman gain ratio Gamma(R)), all-DFRA, and alternating span configuration (EDFA and DFRA). NCI 5 is a translucent configuration based on all-EDFA and 3R regenerators. We model the physical layer for every network configuration to determine the maximum achievable reach of optical signals. Employing simulation, we calculate the blocking probability and the energy consumption of the different network configurations. In terms of blocking, our results show that NCI 2 and 3 offer the lowest blocking probability, with at least 1 and 3 orders of magnitude of difference with respect to NCI 1 and 5 at high and low traffic loads, respectively. In terms of energy consumption, the best performing alternatives are the ones with the worst blocking (NCI 1), while NCI 3 exhibits the highest energy consumption with NCI Gamma(R) = 0.75 following closely. This situation highlights a clear trade-off between blocking performance and energy cost that must be considered when designing a dynamic EON. Thus, we identify NCI 2 using Gamma(R) = 0.25 as a promising alternative to reduce the blocking probability significantly in wide-area dynamic EONs without a prohibitive increase in energy consumption.
Keywords: Repeaters; Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers; Energy consumption; Optical signal processing; Optical polarization; Gain; Optical pumping; Elastic optical networks; resource assignment; translucent configuration; transparent configuration
Morales, P., Lozada, A., Borquez-Paredes, D., Olivares, R., Saavedra, G., Leiva, A., et al. (2021). Improving the Performance of SDM-EON Through Demand Prioritization: A Comprehensive Analysis. IEEE Access, 9, 63475–63490.
Abstract: This paper studies the impact of demand-prioritization on Space-Division Multiplexing Elastic Optical Networks (SDM-EON). For this purpose, we solve the static Routing, Modulation Level, Spatial Mode, and Spectrum Assignment (RMLSSA) problem using 34 different explainable demand-prioritization strategies. Although previous works have applied heuristics or meta-heuristics to perform demand-prioritization, they have not focused on identifying the best prioritization strategies, their inner operation, and the implications behind their good performance by thorough profiling and impact analysis. We focus on a comprehensive analysis identifying the best explainable strategies to sort network demands in SDM-EON, considering the physical-layer impairments found in optical communications. Also, we show that simply using the common shortest path routing might lead to higher resource requirements. Extensive simulation results show that up to 8.33% capacity savings can be achieved on average by balanced routing, up to a 16.69% capacity savings can be achieved using the best performing demand-prioritization strategy compared to the worst-performing ones, the most used demand-prioritization strategy in the literature (serving demands with higher bandwidth requirements first) is not the best-performing one but the one sorting based on the path lengths, and using double-criteria strategies to break ties is key for a good performance. These results are relevant showing that a good combination of routing and demand-prioritization heuristics impact significantly on network performance. Additionally, they increase the understanding about the inner workings of good heuristics, a valuable knowledge when network settings forbid using more computationally complex approaches.
Keywords: Modulation; Optical fiber networks; Optical modulation; Routing; Resource management; Bandwidth; Optical variables control; Elastic optical networks; space-division multiplexing; resource assignment; network capacity; physical-layer impairments