
Asenjo, F. A., & Hojman, S. A. (2017). Do electromagnetic waves always propagate along null geodesics? Class. Quantum Gravity, 34(20), 12 pp.
Abstract: We find exact solutions to Maxwell equations written in terms of fourvector potentials in nonrotating, as well as in Gdel and Kerr spacetimes. We show that Maxwell equations can be reduced to two uncoupled secondorder differential equations for combinations of the components of the fourvector potential. Exact electromagnetic waves solutions are written on given gravitational field backgrounds where they evolve. We find that in nonrotating spherical symmetric spacetimes, electromagnetic waves travel along null geodesics. However, electromagnetic waves on Gdel and Kerr spacetimes do not exhibit that behavior.



Asenjo, F. A., & Hojman, S. A. (2017). New nonlinear modified massless KleinGordon equation. Eur. Phys. J. C, 77(11), 5 pp.
Abstract: The massless KleinGordon equation on arbitrary curved backgrounds allows for solutions which develop “tails” inside the light cone and, therefore, do not strictly follow null geodesics as discovered by DeWitt and Brehme almost 60 years ago. A modification of the massless KleinGordon equation is presented, which always exhibits null geodesic propagation of waves on arbitrary curved spacetimes. This new equation is derived from a Lagrangian which exhibits currentcurrent interaction. Its nonlinearity is due to a selfcoupling term which is related to the quantum mechanical Bohm potential.



Asenjo, F. A., & Mahajan, S. M. (2015). Relativistic quantum vorticity of the quadratic form of the Dirac equation. Phys. Scr., 90(1), 4 pp.
Abstract: We explore the fluid version of the quadratic form of the Dirac equation, sometimes called the FeynmanGellMann equation. The dynamics of the quantum spinor field is represented by equations of motion for the fluid density, the velocity field, and the spin field. In analogy with classical relativistic and nonrelativistic quantum theories, the fully relativistic fluid formulation of this equation allows a vortex dynamics. The vortical form is described by a total tensor field that is the weighted combination of the inertial, electromagnetic and quantum forces. The dynamics contrives the quadratic form of the Dirac equation as a total vorticity free system.



Asenjo, F. A., & Mahajan, S. M. (2019). Diamagnetic field states in cosmological plasmas. Phys. Rev. E, 99(5), 7 pp.
Abstract: Using a generally covariant electrovortic (magnetofluid) formalism for relativistic plasmas, the dynamical evolution of a generalized vorticity (a combination of the magnetic and kinematic parts) is studied in a cosmological context. We derive macroscopic vorticity and magnetic field structures that can emerge in spatial equilibrium configurations of the relativistic plasma. These fields, however, evolve in time. These magnetic and velocity fields, selfconsistently sustained in a plasma with arbitrary thermodynamics, constitute a diamagnetic state in the expanding universe. In particular, we explore a special class of magnetic and velocity field structures supported by a plasma in which the generalized vorticity vanishes. We derive a highly interesting characteristic of such “superconductorlike” fields in a cosmological plasmas in the radiation era in the early universe. In that case, the fields grow proportional to the scale factor, establishing a deep connection between the expanding universe and the primordial magnetic fields.



Asenjo, F. A., & Mahajan, S. M. (2020). Resonant interaction between dispersive gravitational waves and scalar massive particles. Phys. Rev. D, 101(6), 4 pp.
Abstract: The KleinGordon equation is solved in the curved background spacetime created by a dispersive gravitational wave. Unlike solutions of perturbed Einstein equations in vacuum, dispersive gravitational waves do not travel exactly at the speed of light. As a consequence, the gravitational wave can resonantly exchange energy with scalar massive particles. Some details of the resonant interaction are displayed in a calculation demonstrating how relativistic particles (modeled by the KleinGordon equation), feeding on such gravitational waves, may be driven to extreme energies.



Asenjo, F. A., & Moya, P. S. (2019). The contribution of magnetic monopoles to the ponderomotive force. J. Phys. AMath. Theor., 52(25), 13 pp.
Abstract: When magnetic monopoles are assumed to exist in plasma dynamics, the propagation of electromagnetic waves is modified as Maxwell equations acquire a symmetrical structure due to the existence of electric and magnetic charge and current densities. This work presents a theoretical exploration on how far we can push the limits of a plasma theory under the presence of magnetic monopoles. In particular, we study the modification of ponderomotive forces in a plasma composed by electric and magnetic charges. We show that the general ponderomotive force on this plasma depends nontrivially on the magnetic monopoles, through the slow temporal and spatial variations of the electromagnetic field amplitudes. The magnetic charges introduce corrections even if the plasma is unmagnetized. Also, it is shown that the magnetic monopoles also experience a ponderomotive force due to the electrons. This force is in the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic waves.



Asenjo, F. A., Comisso, L., & Mahajan, S. M. (2015). Generalized magnetofluid connections in pair plasmas. Phys. Plasmas, 22(12), 4 pp.
Abstract: We extend the magnetic connection theorem of ideal magnetohydrodynamics to nonideal relativistic pair plasmas. Adopting a generalized Ohm's law, we prove the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved by the plasma dynamics. We show that these connections are related to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields. The generalized magnetofluid connections set important constraints on the plasma dynamics by forbidding transitions between configurations with different magnetofluid connectivity. An approximated solution is explicitly shown where the corrections due to current inertial effects are found. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.



Asenjo, F. A., Erices, C., Gomberoff, A., Hojman, S. A., & Montecinos, A. (2017). Differential geometry approach to asymmetric transmission of light. Opt. Express, 25(22), 26405–26416.
Abstract: In the last ten years, the technology of differential geometry, ubiquitous in gravitational physics, has found its place in the field of optics. It has been successfully used in the design of optical metamaterials through a technique now known as “transformation optics.” This method, however, only applies for the particular class of metamaterials known as impedance matched, that is, materials whose electric permittivity is equal to their magnetic permeability. In that case, the material may be described by a spacetime metric. In the present work we will introduce a generalization of the geometric methods of transformation optics to situations in which the material is not impedance matched. In such situations, the material or more precisely, its constitutive tensorwill not be described by a metric only. We bring in a second tensor, with the local symmetries of the Weyl tensor, the “Wtensor.” In the geometric optics approximation we show how the properties of the Wtensor are related to the asymmetric transmission of the material. We apply this feature to the design of a particularly interesting set of asymmetric materials. These materials are birefringent when light rays approach the material in a given direction, but behave just like vacuum when the rays have the opposite direction with the appropriate polarization (or, in some cases, independently of the polarization). (C) 2017 Optical Society of America



Asenjoa, F. A., & Hojman, S. A. (2019). Correspondence between dark energy quantum cosmology and Maxwell equations. Eur. Phys. J. C, 79(9), 5 pp.
Abstract: A FriedmannRobertsonWalker cosmology with dark energy can be modelled using a quintessence field. That system is equivalent to a relativistic particle moving on a twodimensional conformal spacetime. When the quintessence behaves as a free massless scalar field in a Universe with cosmological constant, the quantized version of that theory can lead to a supersymmetric Majorana quantum cosmology. The purpose of this work is to show that such quantum cosmological model corresponds to the Maxwell equations for electromagnetic waves propagating in a medium with specific values for its relative permittivity and relative permeability. The form of those media parameters are calculated, implying that a Majorana quantum cosmology can be studied in an analogue electromagnetic system.



AstorgaElo, M., RamirezFlandes, S., DeLong, E. F., & Ulloa, O. (2015). Genomic potential for nitrogen assimilation in uncultivated members of Prochlorococcus from an anoxic marine zone. Isme J., 9(5), 1264–1267.
Abstract: Cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus are the most abundant photosynthetic marine organisms and key factors in the global carbon cycle. The understanding of their distribution and ecological importance in oligotrophic tropical and subtropical waters, and their differentiation into distinct ecotypes, is based on genetic and physiological information from several isolates. Currently, all available Prochlorococcus genomes show their incapacity for nitrate utilization. However, environmental sequence data suggest that some uncultivated lineages may have acquired this capacity. Here we report that uncultivated lowlightadapted Prochlorococcus from the nutrientrich, lowlight, anoxic marine zone (AMZ) of the eastern tropical South Pacific have the genetic potential for nitrate uptake and assimilation. All genes involved in this trait were found syntenic with those present in marine Synechococcus. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses also suggest that these genes have not been aquired recently, but perhaps were retained from a common ancestor, highlighting the basal characteristics of the AMZ lineages within Prochlorococcus.



AstudilloDefru, N., Cloutier, R., Wang, S. X., Teske, J., Brahm, R., Hellier, C., et al. (2020). A hot terrestrial planet orbiting the bright M dwarf L 1689 unveiled by TESS. Astron. Astrophys., 636, 13 pp.
Abstract: We report the detection of a transiting superEarthsized planet (R = 1.39 +/ 0.09 Rcircle plus) in a 1.4day orbit around L 1689 (TOI134), a bright M1V dwarf (V = 11, K = 7.1) located at 25.15 +/ 0.02 pc. The host star was observed in the first sector of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. For confirmation and planet mass measurement purposes, this was followed up with groundbased photometry, seeinglimited and highresolution imaging, and precise radial velocity (PRV) observations using the HARPS and Magellan/PFS spectrographs. By combining the TESS data and PRV observations, we find the mass of L 1689 b to be 4.60 +/ 0.56 Mcircle plus and thus the bulk density to be 1.74(0.33)(+0.44) times higher than that of the Earth. The orbital eccentricity is smaller than 0.21 (95% confidence). This planet is a level one candidate for the TESS mission's scientific objective of measuring the masses of 50 small planets, and it is one of the most observationally accessible terrestrial planets for future atmospheric characterization.



Atkinson, J., & Maurelia, A. (2017). RedundancyBased Trust in QuestionAnswering Systems. Computer, 50(1), 58–65.
Abstract: By combining user preferences, redundancy analysis, and trustnetwork inference, the proposed trust model can augment candidate answers with information about target sources on the basis of connections with other web users and sources. Experiments show that the model is more effective overall than trust analyses based on inference alone.



Averbakh, I., & Pereira, J. (2018). Lateness Minimization in Pairwise Connectivity Restoration Problems. INFORMS J. Comput., 30(3), 522–538.
Abstract: A network is given whose edges need to be constructed (or restored after a disaster). The lengths of edges represent the required construction/restoration times given available resources, and one unit of length of the network can be constructed per unit of time. All points of the network are accessible for construction at any time. For each pair of vertices, a due date is given. It is required to find a construction schedule that minimizes the maximum lateness of all pairs of vertices, where the lateness of a pair is the difference between the time when the pair becomes connected by an already constructed path and the pair's due date. We introduce the problem and analyze its structural properties, present a mixedinteger linear programming formulation, develop a number of lower bounds that are integrated in a branchandbound algorithm, and discuss results of computational experiments both for instances based on randomly generated networks and for instances based on 2010 Chilean earthquake data.



Aybar, M., PerezCalleja, P., Li, M., Pavissich, J. P., & Nerenberg, R. (2019). Predation creates unique void layer in membraneaerated biofilms. Water Res., 149, 232–242.
Abstract: The membraneaerated biofilm reactor (MABR) is a novel wastewater treatment technology based on oxygensupplying membranes. The counter diffusion of oxygen and electron donors in MABRs leads to unique behavior, and we hypothesized it also could impact predation. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT), microsensor analyses, and mathematical modeling to investigate predation in membraneaerated biofilms (MABs). When protozoa were excluded from the inoculum, the MAB's OCTobservable void fraction was around 5%. When protozoa were included, the void fraction grew to nearly 50%, with large, continuous voids at the base of the biofilm. Realtime OCT imaging showed highly motile protozoa in the voids. MABs with protozoa and a high bulk COD (270 mg/L) only had 4% void fraction. DNA sequencing revealed a high relative abundance of amoeba in both high and lowCOD MABs. Flagellates were only abundant in the lowCOD MAB. Modeling also suggested a relationship between substrate concentrations, diffusion mode (co or counterdiffusion), and bioflim void fraction. Results suggest that amoeba proliferate in the bioflim interior, especially in the aerobic zones. Voids form once COD limitation at the base of MABs allows predation rates to exceed microbial growth rates. Once formed, the voids provide a niche for motile protozoa, which expand the voids into a large, continuous gap. This increases the potential for biofilm sloughing, and may have detrimental effects on slowgrowing, aerobic microorganisms such as nitrifying bacteria. (C)2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



Aylwin, R., JerezHanckes, C., & Pinto, J. (2020). On the Properties of Quasiperiodic Boundary Integral Operators for the Helmholtz Equation. Integr. Equ. Oper. Theory, 92(2), 41 pp.
Abstract: We study the mapping properties of boundary integral operators arising when solving twodimensional, timeharmonic waves scattered by periodic domains. For domains assumed to be at least Lipschitz regular, we propose a novel explicit representation of Sobolev spaces for quasiperiodic functions that allows for an analysis analogous to that of Helmholtz scattering by bounded objects. Except for RayleighWood frequencies, continuity and coercivity results are derived to prove wellposedness of the associated first kind boundary integral equations.



Aylwin, R., JerezHanckes, C., Schwab, C., & Zech, J. (2020). Domain Uncertainty Quantification in Computational Electromagnetics. SIAM/ASA J. Uncert. Quant., 8(1), 301–341.
Abstract: We study the numerical approximation of timeharmonic, electromagnetic fields inside a lossy cavity of uncertain geometry. Key assumptions are a possibly highdimensional parametrization of the uncertain geometry along with a suitable transformation to a fixed, nominal domain. This uncertainty parametrization results in families of countably parametric, Maxwelllike cavity problems that are posed in a single domain, with inhomogeneous coefficients that possess finite, possibly low spatial regularity, but exhibit holomorphic parametric dependence in the differential operator. Our computational scheme is composed of a sparse grid interpolation in the highdimensional parameter domain and an ${H}{curl}$ conforming edge element discretization of the parametric problem in the nominal domain. As a steppingstone in the analysis, we derive a novel Strangtype lemma for Maxwelllike problems in the nominal domain, which is of independent interest. Moreover, we accommodate arbitrary small Sobolev regularity of the electric field and also cover uncertain isotropic constitutive or material laws. The shape holomorphy and edgeelement consistency error analysis for the nominal problem are shown to imply convergence rates for multilevel Monte Carlo and for quasiMonte Carlo integration, as well as sparse grid approximations, in uncertainty quantification for computational electromagnetics. They also imply expression rate estimates for deep ReLU networks of shapetosolution maps in this setting. Finally, our computational experiments confirm the presented theoretical results.



Aylwin, R., SilvaOelker, G., JerezHanckes, C., & Fay, P. (2020). Optimization methods for achieving high diffraction efficiency with perfect electric conducting gratings. J Opt Soc Am A, 37(8), 1316–1326.
Abstract: This work presents the implementation, numerical examples, and experimental convergence study of first and secondorder optimization methods applied to onedimensional periodic gratings. Through boundary integral equations and shape derivatives, the profile of a grating is optimized such that it maximizes the diffraction efficiency for given diffraction modes for transverse electric polarization. We provide a thorough comparison of three different optimization methods: a firstorder method (gradient descent); a secondorder approach based on a Newton iteration, where the usual Newton step is replaced by taking the absolute value of the eigenvalues given by the spectral decomposition of the Hessian matrix to deal with nonconvexity; and the BroydenFletcherGoldfarbShanno (BFGS) algorithm, a quasiNewton method. Numerical examples are provided to validate our claims. Moreover, two grating profiles are designed for high efficiency in the Littrow configuration and then compared to a high efficiency commercial grating. Conclusions and recommendations, derived from the numerical experiments, are provided as well as future research avenues.



Azeem, M., Guérin, A., Dumais, T., Caminos, L., Goldstein, R. E., Pesci, A. I., et al. (2020). Optimal Design of Multilayer Fog Collectors. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 12(6), 7736–7743.
Abstract: The growing concerns over desertification have spurred research into technologies aimed at acquiring water from nontraditional sources such as dew, fog, and water vapor. Some of the most promising developments have focused on improving designs to collect water from fog. However, the absence of a shared framework to predict, measure, and compare the water collection efficiencies of new prototypes is becoming a major obstacle to progress in the field. We address this problem by providing a general theory to design efficient fog collectors as well as a concrete experimental protocol to furnish our theory with all the necessary parameters to quantify the effective water collection efficiency. We show in particular that multilayer collectors are required for high fog collection efficiency and that all efficient designs are found within a narrow range of mesh porosity. We support our conclusions with measurements on simple multilayer harp collectors.



Baler, R. V., Wijnhoven, I. B., del Valle, V. I., Giovanetti, C. M., & Vivanco, J. F. (2019). Microporosity Clustering Assessment in Calcium Phosphate Bioceramic Particles. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol., 7(281), 7 pp.
Abstract: There has been an increase in the application of different biomaterials to repair hard tissues. Within these biomaterials, calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics are suitable candidates, since they can be biocompatible, biodegradable, osteoinductive, and osteoconductive. Moreover, during sintering, bioceramic materials are prone to form micropores and undergo changes in their surface topographical features, which influence cellular physiology and bone ingrowth. In this study, five geometrical properties from the surface of CaP bioceramic particles and their micropores were analyzed by data mining techniques, driven by the research question: what are the geometrical properties of individual micropores in a CaP bioceramic, and how do they relate to each other? The analysis not only shows that it is feasible to determine the existence of micropore clusters, but also to quantify their geometrical properties. As a result, these CaP bioceramic particles present three groups of micropore clusters distinctive by their geometrical properties. Consequently, this new methodological clustering assessment can be applied to advance the knowledge about CaP bioceramics and their role in bone tissue engineering.



Bandi, M. M., Concha, A., Wood, R., & Mahadevan, L. (2013). A pendulum in a flowing soap film. Phys. Fluids, 25(4), 6 pp.
Abstract: We consider the dynamics of a pendulum made of a rigid ring attached to an elastic filament immersed in a flowing soap film. The system shows an oscillatory instability whose onset is a function of the flow speed, length of the supporting string, the ring mass, and ring radius. We characterize this system and show that there are different regimes where the frequency is dependent or independent of the pendulum length depending on the relative magnitude of the addedmass. Although the system is an infinitedimensional, we can explain many of our results in terms of a one degreeoffreedom system corresponding to a forced pendulum. Indeed, using the vorticity measured via particle imaging velocimetry allows us to make the model quantitative, and a comparison with our experimental results shows we can capture the basic phenomenology of this system. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4800057]

