
Agostini, C. A., Nasirov, S., & Silva, C. (2016). Solar PV Planning Toward Sustainable Development in Chile: Challenges and Recommendations. J. Environ. Dev., 25(1), 25–46.
Abstract: Over the past decade, the promotion of renewable energy projects in Chile, especially solar energy projects, has become increasingly important, as energy dependence from foreign fossil fuels has increased and concerns regarding climate change continue to grow, posing a significant challenge to the local economy. Even though recent developments toward a more sustainable energy matrix in Chile have significantly increased the investment in the solar energy sector, social and environmental fragilities, combined with the lack of wellfunctioning institutions and the historical marginalization of indigenous communities who have been affected by several energy projects, result in gradually increasing conflictive situations. Unless proper mechanisms are designed and implemented to rapidly and correctly address these challenges, Chile could miss the opportunities that solar energy projects can provide to the development of its communities and to the economic growth of its regions. This article studies solar photovoltaics planning in Chile, focusing on the recent developments and the main challenges ahead, and proposes policy recommendations for effectively addressing these challenges.



Aguilera, V. M., Vargas, C. A., Lardies, M. A., & Poupin, M. J. (2016). Adaptive variability to lowpH river discharges in Acartia tonsa and stress responses to high PCO2 conditions. Mar. Ecol.Evol. Persp., 37(1), 215–226.
Abstract: Environmental transitions leading to spatial physicalchemical gradients are of ecological and evolutionary interest because they are able to induce variations in phenotypic plasticity. Thus, the adaptive variability to lowpH river discharges may drive divergent stress responses [ingestion rates (IR) and expression of stressrelated genes such as Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Ferritin] in the neritic copepod Acartia tonsa facing changes in the marine chemistry associated to ocean acidification (OA). These responses were tested in copepod populations inhabiting two environments with contrasting carbonate system parameters (an estuarine versus coastal area) in the Southern Pacific Ocean, and assessing an insitu and 96h experimental incubation under conditions of high pressure of CO2 (PCO2 1200ppm). Adaptive variability was a determining factor in driving variability of copepods' responses. Thus, the foodrich but colder and corrosive estuary induced a traits tradeoff expressed as depressed IR under insitu conditions. However, this experience allowed these copepods to tolerate further exposure to high PCO2 levels better, as their IRs were on average 43% higher thanthose of the coastal individuals. Indeed, expression of both the Hsp70 and Ferritin genes in coastal copepods was significantly higher after acclimation to high PCO2 conditions. Along with other recent evidence, our findings confirm that adaptation to local fluctuations in seawater pH seems to play a significant role in the response of planktonic populations to OAassociated conditions. Facing the environmental threat represented by the interplay between multiple drivers of climate change, this biological feature should be examined in detail asa potential tool for risk mitigation policies in coastal management arrangements.



Akhmediev, N., Kibler, B., Baronio, F., Belic, M., Zhong, W. P., Zhang, Y. Q., et al. (2016). Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events. J. Opt., 18(6), 37 pp.
Abstract: The pioneering paper 'Optical rogue waves' by Solli et al (2007 Nature 450 1054) started the new subfield in optics. This work launched a great deal of activity on this novel subject. As a result, the initial concept has expanded and has been enriched by new ideas. Various approaches have been suggested since then. A fresh look at the older results and new discoveries has been undertaken, stimulated by the concept of 'optical rogue waves'. Presently, there may not by a unique view on how this new scientific term should be used and developed. There is nothing surprising when the opinion of the experts diverge in any new field of research. After all, rogue waves may appear for a multiplicity of reasons and not necessarily only in optical fibers and not only in the process of supercontinuum generation. We know by now that rogue waves may be generated by lasers, appear in wide aperture cavities, in plasmas and in a variety of other optical systems. Theorists, in turn, have suggested many other situations when rogue waves may be observed. The strict definition of a rogue wave is still an open question. For example, it has been suggested that it is defined as 'an optical pulse whose amplitude or intensity is much higher than that of the surrounding pulses'. This definition (as suggested by a peer reviewer) is clear at the intuitive level and can be easily extended to the case of spatial beams although additional clarifications are still needed. An extended definition has been presented earlier by N Akhmediev and E Pelinovsky (2010 Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185 14). Discussions along these lines are always useful and all new approaches stimulate research and encourage discoveries of new phenomena. Despite the potentially existing disagreements, the scientific terms 'optical rogue waves' and 'extreme events' do exist. Therefore coordination of our efforts in either unifying the concept or in introducing alternative definitions must be continued. From this point of view, a number of the scientists who work in this area of research have come together to present their research in a single review article that will greatly benefit all interested parties of this research direction. Whether the authors of this 'roadmap' have similar views or different from the original concept, the potential reader of the review will enrich their knowledge by encountering most of the existing views on the subject. Previously, a special issue on optical rogue waves (2013 J. Opt. 15 060201) was successful in achieving this goal but over two years have passed and more material has been published in this quickly emerging subject. Thus, it is time for a roadmap that may stimulate and encourage further research.



Anabalon, A., & Batista, C. (2016). A class of integrable metrics. Phys. Rev. D, 93(6), 13 pp.
Abstract: In four dimensions, the most general metric admitting two commuting Killing vectors and a ranktwo Killing tensor can be parametrized by ten arbitrary functions of a single variable. We show that picking a special vierbein, reducing the system to eight functions, implies the existence of two geodesic and sharefree, null congruences, generated by two principal null directions of the Weyl tensor. Thus, if the spacetime is an Einstein manifold, the GoldbergSachs theorem implies it is Petrov type D, and by explicit construction, is in the Carter class. Hence, our analysis provides a straightforward connection between the most general integrable structure and the Carter family of spacetimes.



Anabalon, A., Astefanesei, D., & Choque, D. (2016). Hairy AdS solitons. Phys. Lett. B, 762, 80–85.
Abstract: We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einsteindilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.



Anabalon, A., Astefanesei, D., Choque, D., & Martinez, C. (2016). Trace anomaly and counterterms in designer gravity. J. High Energy Phys., (3), 29 pp.
Abstract: We construct concrete counterterms of the BalasubramanianKraus type for Einsteinscalar theories with designer gravity boundary conditions in AdS(4), so that the total action is fi nite onshell and satisfy a well de fi ned variational principle. We focus on scalar fi elds with the conformal mass m(2) = 2l(2) and show that the holographic mass matches the Hamiltonian mass for any boundary conditions. We compute the trace anomaly of the dual fi eld theory in the generic case, as well as when there exist logarithmic branches of nonlinear origin. As expected, the anomaly vanishes for the boundary conditions that are AdS invariant. When the anomaly does not vanish, the dual stress tensor describes a thermal gas with an equation of state related to the boundary conditions of the scalar fi eld. In the case of a vanishing anomaly, we recover the dual theory of a massless thermal gas. As an application of the formalism, we consider a general family of exact hairy black hole solutions that, for some particular values of the parameters in the moduli potential, contains solutions of fourdimensional gauged N = 8 supergravity and its omegadeformation. Using the AdS/CFT duality dictionary, they correspond to triple trace deformations of the dual fi eld theory.



Anabalon, A., Deruelle, N., & Julie, F. L. (2016). EinsteinKatz action,variational principle, Noether charges and the thermodynamics of AdSblack holes. J. High Energy Phys., (8), 15 pp.
Abstract: In this paper we describe 4dimensional gravity coupled to scalar and Maxwell fields by the EinsteinKatz action, that is, the covariant version of the “GammaGamma – GammaGamma” part of the Hilbert action supplemented by the divergence of a generalized “Katz vector”. We consider static solutions of Einstein's equations, parametrized by some integration constants, which describe an ensemble of asymptotically AdS black holes. Instead of the usual Dirichlet boundary conditions, which aim at singling out a specific solution within the ensemble, we impose that the variation of the action vanishes on shell for the broadest possible class of solutions. We will see that, when a longrange scalar “hair” is present, only subfamilies of the solutions can obey that criterion. The KatzBicakLyndenBell (“KBL”) superpotential built on this (generalized) vector will then give straightforwardly the Noether charges associated with the spacetime symmetries (that is, in the static case, the mass). Computing the action on shell, we will see next that the solutions which obey the imposed variational principle, and with Noether charges given by the KBL superpotential, satisfy the Gibbs relation, the Katz vectors playing the role of “counterterms”. Finally, we show on the specific example of dyonic black holes that the subclass selected by our variational principle satisfies the first law of thermodynamics when their mass is de fined by the KBL superpotential.



Araneda, A., Sanhueza, V., & Bennun, L. (2016). Simplified Calibration for TotalReflection Xray Fluorescence. Anal. Lett., 49(11), 1711–1721.
Abstract: The usual method to determine the relative sensitivity curve for totalreflection Xray fluorescence (TXRF) uses multielemental solutions, which may be purchased or prepared in the laboratory. In the former case, the accuracy and precision of the concentrations are certified by the provider, while in the latter, the experience of the technical staff determines the analytical quality. These procedures are costly and the quality of the solutions cannot be easily verified. The goal of this work was to use pure crystalline salts containing two elements that may be quantified by TXRF for the calibration of the spectrometer. The analysis of these samples along with a mathematical procedure assures good precision of the results. The reported method is economically efficient, simple, and eliminates the uncertainties of the element concentration in the samples produced by the standard methods, thereby improving the quality of TXRF results.



Armaza, C., Hojman, S. A., Koch, B., & Zalaquett, N. (2016). On the possibility of nongeodesic motion of massless spinning tops. Class. Quantum Gravity, 33(14), 18 pp.
Abstract: The motion of spinning massless particles in gravitationally curved backgrounds is revisited by considering new types of constraints. Those constraints guarantee zero mass (P μP μ= 0) and they allow for the possibility of trajectories which are not simply null geodesics. To exemplify this previously unknown possibility, the equations of motion are solved for radial motion in Schwarzschild background. It is found that the particle experiences a spininduced energy shift, which is proportional to the Hawking temperature of the black hole background.



Barrera, J., HomemDeMello, T., Moreno, E., Pagnoncelli, B. K., & Canessa, G. (2016). Chanceconstrained problems and rare events: an importance sampling approach. Math. Program., 157(1), 153–189.
Abstract: We study chanceconstrained problems in which the constraints involve the probability of a rare event. We discuss the relevance of such problems and show that the existing samplingbased algorithms cannot be applied directly in this case, since they require an impractical number of samples to yield reasonable solutions. We argue that importance sampling (IS) techniques, combined with a Sample Average Approximation (SAA) approach, can be effectively used in such situations, provided that variance can be reduced uniformly with respect to the decision variables. We give sufficient conditions to obtain such uniform variance reduction, and prove asymptotic convergence of the combined SAAIS approach. As it often happens with IS techniques, the practical performance of the proposed approach relies on exploiting the structure of the problem under study; in our case, we work with a telecommunications problem with Bernoulli input distributions, and show how variance can be reduced uniformly over a suitable approximation of the feasibility set by choosing proper parameters for the IS distributions. Although some of the results are specific to this problem, we are able to draw general insights that can be useful for other classes of problems. We present numerical results to illustrate our findings.



Bottcher, L., WoolleyMeza, O., Goles, E., Helbing, D., & Herrmann, H. J. (2016). Connectivity disruption sparks explosive epidemic spreading. Phys. Rev. E, 93(4), 8 pp.
Abstract: We investigate the spread of an infection or other malfunction of cascading nature when a system component can recover only if it remains reachable from a functioning central component. We consider the susceptibleinfectedsusceptible model, typical of mathematical epidemiology, on a network. Infection spreads from infected to healthy nodes, with the addition that infected nodes can only recover when they remain connected to a predefined central node, through a path that contains only healthy nodes. In this system, clusters of infected nodes will absorb their noninfected interior because no path exists between the central node and encapsulated nodes. This gives rise to the simultaneous infection of multiple nodes. Interestingly, the system converges to only one of two stationary states: either the whole population is healthy or it becomes completely infected. This simultaneous cluster infection can give rise to discontinuous jumps of different sizes in the number of failed nodes. Larger jumps emerge at lower infection rates. The network topology has an important effect on the nature of the transition: we observed hysteresis for networks with dominating local interactions. Our model shows how local spread can abruptly turn uncontrollable when it disrupts connectivity at a larger spatial scale.



Burgers, T. A., Vivanco, J. F., Zahatnansky, J., Moren, A. J. V., Mason, J. J., & Williams, B. O. (2016). Mice with a heterozygous Lrp6 deletion have impaired fracture healing. Bone Res., 4, 9 pp.
Abstract: Bone fracture nonunions, the failure of a fracture to heal, occur in 10%20% of fractures and are a costly and debilitating clinical problem. The Wnt/betacatenin pathway is critical in bone development and fracture healing. Polymorphisms of linking lowdensity lipoprotein receptorrelated protein 6 (LRP6), a Wntbinding receptor, have been associated with decreased bone mineral density and fragility fractures, although this remains controversial. Mice with a homozygous deletion of Lrp6 have severe skeletal abnormalities and are not viable, whereas mice with a heterozygous deletion have a combinatory effect with Lrp5 to decrease bone mineral density. As fracture healing closely models embryonic skeletal development, we investigated the process of fracture healing in mice heterozygous for Lrp6 (Lrp6(+/)) and hypothesized that the heterozygous deletion of Lrp6 would impair fracture healing. Middiaphyseal femur fractures were induced in Lrp6(+/) mice and wildtype controls (Lrp6(+/+)). Fractures were analyzed using microcomputed tomography (mu CT) scans, biomechanical testing, and histological analysis. Lrp6(+/) mice had significantly decreased stiffness and strength at 28 days post fracture (PF) and significantly decreased BV/TV, total density, immature bone density, and mature area within the callus on day14 and 21 PF; they had significantly increased empty callus area at days 14 and 21 PF. Our results demonstrate that the heterozygous deletion of Lrp6 impairs fracture healing, which suggests that Lrp6 has a role in fracture healing.



Bustamante, M., & Contreras, M. (2016). Multiasset BlackScholes model as a variable second class constrained dynamical system. Physica A, 457, 540–572.
Abstract: In this paper, we study the multiasset BlackScholes model from a structural point of view. For this, we interpret the multiasset BlackScholes equation as a multidimensional Schrodinger one particle equation. The analysis of the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian mechanics associated with this quantum model implies that, in this system, the canonical momentums cannot always be written in terms of the velocities. This feature is a typical characteristic of the constrained system that appears in the highenergy physics. To study this model in the proper form, one must apply Dirac's method for constrained systems. The results of the Dirac's analysis indicate that in the correlation parameters space of the multi assets model, there exists a surface (called the Kummer surface Sigma(K), where the determinant of the correlation matrix is null) on which the constraint number can vary. We study in detail the cases with N = 2 and N = 3 assets. For these cases, we calculate the propagator of the multiasset BlackScholes equation and show that inside the Kummer Sigma(K) surface the propagator is well defined, but outside Sigma(K) the propagator diverges and the option price is not well defined. On Sigma(K) the propagator is obtained as a constrained path integral and their form depends on which region of the Kummer surface the correlation parameters lie. Thus, the multiasset BlackScholes model is an example of a variable constrained dynamical system, and it is a new and beautiful property that had not been previously observed. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



Bustos, C., Herrera, C. G., Celentano, D., Chen, D. M., & Cruchaga, M. (2016). Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Inflation Test of Latex Balloons. Lat. Am. J. Solids Struct., 13(14), 2357–2378.
Abstract: Experiments and modeling aimed at assessing the mechanical response of latex balloons in the inflation test are presented. To this end, the hyperelastic Yeoh material model is firstly characterized via tensile test and, then, used to numerically simulate via finite elements the stressstrain evolution during the inflation test. The numerical pressuredisplacement curves are validated with those obtained experimentally. Moreover, this analysis is extended to a biomedical problem of an eyeball under glaucoma conditions.



Caceres, G., Montane, M., Nasirov, S., & O'Ryan, R. (2016). Review of Thermal Materials for CSP Plants and LCOE Evaluation for Performance Improvement using Chilean Strategic Minerals: Lithium Salts and Copper Foams. Sustainability, 8(2), 20 pp.



Campos, J. L., ValenzuelaHeredia, D., Pedrouso, A., del Rio, A. V., Belmonte, M., & MosqueraCorral, A. (2016). Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Plants: Minimization, Treatment, and Prevention. J. Chem., 3796352, 12 pp.
Abstract: The operation of wastewater treatment plants results in direct emissions, from the biological processes, of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2 O), as well as indirect emissions resulting from energy generation. In this study, three possible ways to reduce these emissions are discussed and analyzed: (1) minimization through the change of operational conditions, (2) treatment of the gaseous streams, and (3) prevention by applying new configurations and processes to remove both organic matter and pollutants. In current WWTPs, to modify the operational conditions of existing units reveals itself as possibly the most economical way to decrease N2 O and CO2 emissions without deterioration of effluent quality. Nowadays the treatment of the gaseous streams containing the GHG seems to be a not suitable option due to the high capital costs of systems involved to capture and clean them. The change of WWTP configuration by using microalgae or partial nitritationAnammox processes to remove ammonia from wastewater, instead of conventional nitrificationdenitrification processes, can significantly reduce the GHG emissions and the energy consumed. However, the area required in the case of microalgae systems and the current lack of information about stability of partial nitritationAnammox processes operating in the main stream of the WWTP are factors to be considered.



Canessa, E. C., & Chaigneau, S. E. (2016). When are concepts comparable across minds? Qual. Quant., 50(3), 1367–1384.
Abstract: In communication, people cannot resort to direct reference (e.g., pointing) when using diffuse concepts like democracy. Given that concepts reside in individuals' minds, how can people share those concepts? We argue that concepts are comparable across a social group if they afford agreement for those who use it; and that agreement occurs whenever individuals receive evidence that others conceptualize a given situation similarly to them. Based on Conceptual Agreement Theory, we show how to compute an agreement probability based on the sets of properties belonging to concepts. If that probability is sufficiently high, this shows that concepts afford an adequate level of agreement, and one may say that concepts are comparable across individuals' minds. In contrast to other approaches, our method considers that interindividual variability in naturally occurring conceptual content exists and is a fact that must be taken into account, whereas other theories treat variability as error that should be cancelled out. Given that conceptual variability will exist, our approach may establish whether concepts are comparable across individuals' minds more soundly than previous methods.



Cardu, M., & Seccatore, J. (2016). Quantifying the difficulty of tunnelling by drilling and blasting. Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol., 60, 178–182.
Abstract: This study deals with industrial trends in tunnelling by drill and blast (D&B). We perform a statistical analysis of accumulated experience from the 1950s to the modern day to provide advice for proper project management in tunnel driving. The basis of the study is a wide database of tunnel blast schemes. This database is made of excavation parameters, and considers two main families of blasts: with parallel hole cuts and with inclined hole cuts. Such parameters are analysed by means of statistical regression. Correlations are shown. We present a general curve of correlation between tunnel sections and specific drilling and specific explosive consumption. We show how pull efficiency cannot be correlated to a single parameter, and how tunnelling by D&B needs to be treated as a complex system. Finally, we propose a method for quantifying and classifying the difficulty of tunnelling. The deviation of specific drilling (SD) from industrial average trend is used as an indicator of difficulty: easier when SD is lower than average, and more difficult when SD is higher than average. We show how such deviation can be preliminarily associated with lithotypes. This provides to designers and cost estimators a tool of a first approximation for D&B cost prediction at the prefeasability and feasibility stages of a tunnelling project. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



Carreno, A., Gacitua, M., Fuentes, J. A., PaezHernandez, D., Araneda, C., Chavez, I., et al. (2016). Theoretical and experimental characterization of a novel pyridine benzimidazole: suitability for fluorescence staining in cells and antimicrobial properties. New J. Chem., 40(3), 2362–2375.
Abstract: Benzimidazoles presenting intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions have been normally used to better understand the role of Hbonding in biological processes. Here, we present an experimental and theoretical study of a new compound [2,4ditertbutyl6(3Himidazo[4,5c]pyridine2yl)phenol]; (B2), a benzimidazole derivate, exhibiting an intramolecular hydrogen bond. B2 was synthesized and characterized by its H1, HHCOSY, FTIR and mass spectra (EIMS 323 M+). The electronic and optical properties of B2 were studied with theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) and timedependent DFT (TDDFT). B2 showed luminescent emission at room temperature in different solvents, with a large Stokes shift (e.g.; lambda(ex) = 335 nm; lambda(em) = 510 nm in acetonitrile). Also, the quantum yield (phi = 0.21) and theoretical band emission are reported. We found that B2 exhibited a fluorescence emission at around 500 nm in ethanol and in acetonitrile that could be quenched by aqueous solutions of Hg(NO3)(2) in the range of micro molar concentrations. Cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile showed a strong anodic response due to a quasireversible process, with reduction and oxidation waves at 1.28 and 0.47 V vs. SCE. Regarding the biological properties, we assessed the antimicrobial activity of B2 in Salmonella enterica (bacteria), Cryptococcus spp. (yeast), Candida albicans (yeast), Candida tropicalis (yeast) and Botrytis cinerea (mold). To this end, we determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (for bacteria and yeasts), the growth inhibition halos (for yeasts), and the inhibition of mycelial growth (for the mold). We observed that B2 exerted an antifungal effect against Cryptococcus spp. and Botrytis cinerea. In addition, due to its fluorescence properties, B2 has proven to be a suitable marker to observe bacteria (Salmonella enterica and an Escherichia coli derivative), yeasts (Candida albicans), and even human cells (SKOV3 and HEK293) by confocal microscopy.



Carreno, A., Gacitua, M., Fuentes, J. A., PaezHernandez, D., Penaloza, J. P., Otero, C., et al. (2016). Fluorescence probes for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells using Re(CO)(3)(+) complexes with an electron withdrawing ancillary ligand. New J. Chem., 40(9), 7687–7700.
Abstract: Research in fluorescence microscopy presents new challenges, especially with respect to the development of new metalbased fluorophores. In this work, new fac[Re(CO)(3)(bpy)L]PF6 (C3) and fac[ Re(CO)(3)(dmb)L]PF6 (C4) complexes, where L is an ancillary ligand, E2((3aminopyridin4ylimino)methyl)4,6ditertbutylphenol, both exhibiting an intramolecular hydrogen bond, have been synthesized for use as preliminary probes for fluorescence microscopy. The complexes were characterized using chemical techniques such as UVvis, H1NMR, TOCSY, FTIR, cyclic voltammetry, mass spectrometry (EIMS 752.22 M+ for C3 and 780.26 M+ for C4) and DFT calculations including spinorbit effects. The electron withdrawing nature of the ancillary ligand L in C3 and C4 explains their electrochemical behavior, which shows the oxidation of ReI at 1.84 V for C3 and at 1.88 V for C4. The UVvis absorption and emission properties have been studied at room temperature in acetonitrile solution. The complexes show luminescent emission with a large Stokes shift (lambda(ex) = 366 nm, lambda(em) = 610 nm for C3 and lambda(ex) = 361 nm, lambda(em) = 560 nm for C4). The TDDFT calculations suggest that an experimental mixed absorption band at 360 nm could be assigned to MLCT (d(Re) > pi*(dmb)) and LLCT (pi(L) > pi*(dmb)) transitions. We have also assessed the cytotoxicity of C3 and C4 in an epithelial cell line (T84). We found that 12.5 μg ml(1) of C3 or C4 is the minimum concentration needed to kill 80% of the cell population, as determined by neutral red uptake. Finally, the potential of C3 and C4 as biological dyes for use in fluorescent microscopy was assessed in bacteria (Salmonella enterica) and yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus spp.), and in an ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV3). We found that in all cases, both C3 and C4 are suitable compounds to be used as fluorescent dyes for biological purposes. In addition, we present evidence suggesting that these rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes may be also useful as differential fluorescent dyes in yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus spp.), without the need for antibodies.

