Agostini, C. A., Guzman, A. M., Nasirov, S., & Silva, C. (2019). A surplus based framework for crossborder electricity trade in South America. Energy Policy, 128, 673–684.
Abstract: The South American region has experienced a steady increase in its demand for electricity and faces several challenges in the development of the electricity sector. Among them, high fluctuations in hydro generation, high and volatile prices of fossil fuels, and environmental and social impacts associated to energy activities. Strengthening cooperation for crossborder electricity trade is considered a sustainable alternative for addressing these challenges. For the expansion of electricity trade among countries within the region, both infrastructure and a regulation that defines the conditions of the electric power exchanges between countries are required. A good regulatory framework would allow all market players to have access to the commercialization of energy with other countries in the region, guarantee that the treatment of exchanges is nondiscriminatory, and maintain the efficiency, cost effectiveness and security characteristics operation of all electricity systems. In this context, this paper proposes a framework with the basic setting conditions for the import and export of energy from the “surplus” available for exchange. The empirical analysis of the regulatory proposal, based on simulations, shows that the exchange of energy from Chile with its neighboring countries is feasible in a clear and transparent manner, reducing the marginal costs of energy and the total cost of operation, keeping the average cost of generation relatively constant.

Alejo, L., Atkinson, J., Arriagada, C., GuzmanFierro, V., & Roeckel, M. (2019). Effluent composition prediction of a twostage anaerobic digestion process: machine learning and stoichiometry techniques (vol 25, pg 21149, 2018) (Vol. 26). Springer Heidelberg.
Abstract: The original publication of this paper contains a mistake. Unfortunately, an author was inadvertently missed out, Constanza Arriagada had participated in the operation of the anaerobic digesters cited in the work and now as a PhD student, she is involved in the production of other publication.

AlvarezMiranda, E., & Pereira, J. (2019). On the complexity of assembly line balancing problems. Comput. Oper. Res., 108, 182–186.
Abstract: Assembly line balancing is a family of combinatorial optimization problems that has been widely studied in the literature due to its simplicity and industrial applicability. Most line balancing problems are NPhard as they subsume the bin packing problem as a special case. Nevertheless, it is common in the line balancing literature to cite [A. Gutjahr and G. Nemhauser, An algorithm for the line balancing problem, Management Science 11 (1964) 308315] in order to assess the computational complexity of the problem. Such an assessment is not correct since the work of Gutjahr and Nemhauser predates the concept of NPhardness. This work points at over 50 publications since 1995 with the aforesaid error. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

ArayaLetelier, G., ConchaRiedel, J., Antico, F. C., & Sandoval, C. (2019). Experimental mechanicaldamage assessment of earthen mixes reinforced with micro polypropylene fibers. Constr. Build. Mater., 198, 762–776.
Abstract: The addition of engineered polypropylene fibers to earthen materials offers new opportunities to control their damage evolution and mechanical properties that altogether provides more reliability and extends the life span of these materials. The latter is of special interest considering that earthen materials are still widely used in the form of adobe blocks for earthen masonry, cob, rammed earth or even earthen mortars for new construction and conservation of historic buildings. In this work, the effect of dosage of micro polypropylene fibers (MPPF) in the damagemechanical performance of earthen mixes is studied experimentally. Part of the experiments includes two different tests to assess distributed and localized cracking of reinforced earth subject to restrained drying shrinkage. In addition, the experimental results showed that the incorporation of MPPF increases up to 83 times the impact strength and 11 times the flexural toughness of earthen mixes. Other mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strength are not statistically affected by the incorporation of MPPF. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

ArayaLetelier, G., Maturana, P., Carrasco, M., Antico, F. C., & Gomez, M. S. (2019). MechanicalDamage Behavior of Mortars Reinforced with Recycled Polypropylene Fibers. Sustainability, 11(8), 17 pp.
Abstract: Commercial polypropylene fibers are incorporated as reinforcement of cementbased materials to improve their mechanical and damage performances related to properties such as tensile and flexural strength, toughness, spalling and impact resistance, delay formation of cracks and reducing crack widths. Yet, the production of these polypropylene fibers generates economic costs and environmental impacts and, therefore, the use of alternative and more sustainable fibers has become more popular in the research materials community. This paper addresses the characterization of recycled polypropylene fibers (RPFs) obtained from discarded domestic plastic sweeps, whose morphological, physical and mechanical properties are provided in order to assess their implementation as fiberreinforcement in cementbased mortars. An experimental program addressing the incorporation of RPFs on the mechanicaldamage performance of mortars, including a sensitivity analysis on the volumes and lengths of fiber, is developed. Using analysis of variance, this paper shows that RPFs statistically enhance flexural toughness and impact strength for high dosages and long fiber lengths. On the contrary, the latter properties are not statistically modified by the incorporation of low dosages and short lengths of RPFs, but still in these cases the incorporation of RPFs in mortars have the positive environmental impact of waste encapsulation. In the case of average compressive and flexural strength of mortars, these properties are not statistically modified when adding RPFs.

ArayaLetelier, G., Parra, P. F., LopezGarcia, D., GarciaValdes, A., Candia, G., & Lagos, R. (2019). Collapse risk assessment of a Chilean dual wallframe reinforced concrete office building. Eng. Struct., 183, 770–779.
Abstract: Several codeconforming reinforced concrete buildings were severely damaged during the 2010 moment magnitude (Mw) 8.8 Chile earthquake, raising concerns about their real collapse margin. Although critical updates were introduced into the Chilean design codes after 2010, guidelines for collapse risk assessment of Chilean buildings remain insufficient. This study evaluates the collapse potential of a typical dual system (shear walls and moment frames) office building in Santiago. Collapse fragility functions were obtained through incremental dynamic analyses using a stateoftheart finite element model of the building. Sitespecific seismic hazard curves were developed, which explicitly incorporated epistemic uncertainty, and combined with the collapse fragility functions to estimate the mean annual frequency of collapse (lambda(c)) values and probabilities of collapse in 50years (Pc(50)). Computed values of lambda(c) and Pc(50) were on the order of 10(5)10(4), and 0.10.7%, respectively, consistent with similar studies developed for buildings in the US. The results also showed that the deaggregation of lambda(c) was controlled by small to medium earthquake intensities and that different models of the collapse fragility functions and hazard curves had a nonnegligible effect on lambda(c) and Pc(50), and thus, propagation of uncertainty in risk assessment problems must be adequately taken into account.

Arbelaez, H., Hernandez, R., & Sierra, W. (2019). Normal harmonic mappings. Mon.heft. Math., 190(3), 425–439.
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to study the concept of normal function in the context of harmonic mappings from the unit disk D to the complex plane. In particular, we obtain necessary conditions for a function f to be normal.

Asenjo, F. A., & Comisso, L. (2019). Gravitational electromotive force in magnetic reconnection around Schwarzschild black holes. Phys. Rev. D, 99(6), 7 pp.
Abstract: We analytically explore the effects of the gravitational electromotive force on magnetic reconnection around Schwarzschild black holes through a generalized generalrelativistic magnetohydrodynamic model that retains twofluid effects. It is shown that the gravitational electromotive force can couple to collisionless twofluid effects and drive magnetic reconnection. This is allowed by the departure from quasineutrality in curved spacetime, which is explicitly manifested as the emergence of an effective resistivity in Ohm's law. The departure from quasineutrality is owed to different gravitational pulls experienced by separate parts of the current layer. This produces an enhancement of the reconnecion rate due to purely gravitational effects.

Asenjo, F. A., & Mahajan, S. M. (2019). Diamagnetic field states in cosmological plasmas. Phys. Rev. E, 99(5), 7 pp.
Abstract: Using a generally covariant electrovortic (magnetofluid) formalism for relativistic plasmas, the dynamical evolution of a generalized vorticity (a combination of the magnetic and kinematic parts) is studied in a cosmological context. We derive macroscopic vorticity and magnetic field structures that can emerge in spatial equilibrium configurations of the relativistic plasma. These fields, however, evolve in time. These magnetic and velocity fields, selfconsistently sustained in a plasma with arbitrary thermodynamics, constitute a diamagnetic state in the expanding universe. In particular, we explore a special class of magnetic and velocity field structures supported by a plasma in which the generalized vorticity vanishes. We derive a highly interesting characteristic of such “superconductorlike” fields in a cosmological plasmas in the radiation era in the early universe. In that case, the fields grow proportional to the scale factor, establishing a deep connection between the expanding universe and the primordial magnetic fields.

Asenjo, F. A., & Moya, P. S. (2019). The contribution of magnetic monopoles to the ponderomotive force. J. Phys. AMath. Theor., 52(25), 13 pp.
Abstract: When magnetic monopoles are assumed to exist in plasma dynamics, the propagation of electromagnetic waves is modified as Maxwell equations acquire a symmetrical structure due to the existence of electric and magnetic charge and current densities. This work presents a theoretical exploration on how far we can push the limits of a plasma theory under the presence of magnetic monopoles. In particular, we study the modification of ponderomotive forces in a plasma composed by electric and magnetic charges. We show that the general ponderomotive force on this plasma depends nontrivially on the magnetic monopoles, through the slow temporal and spatial variations of the electromagnetic field amplitudes. The magnetic charges introduce corrections even if the plasma is unmagnetized. Also, it is shown that the magnetic monopoles also experience a ponderomotive force due to the electrons. This force is in the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic waves.

Asenjoa, F. A., & Hojman, S. A. (2019). Correspondence between dark energy quantum cosmology and Maxwell equations. Eur. Phys. J. C, 79(9), 5 pp.
Abstract: A FriedmannRobertsonWalker cosmology with dark energy can be modelled using a quintessence field. That system is equivalent to a relativistic particle moving on a twodimensional conformal spacetime. When the quintessence behaves as a free massless scalar field in a Universe with cosmological constant, the quantized version of that theory can lead to a supersymmetric Majorana quantum cosmology. The purpose of this work is to show that such quantum cosmological model corresponds to the Maxwell equations for electromagnetic waves propagating in a medium with specific values for its relative permittivity and relative permeability. The form of those media parameters are calculated, implying that a Majorana quantum cosmology can be studied in an analogue electromagnetic system.

Aybar, M., PerezCalleja, P., Li, M., Pavissich, J. P., & Nerenberg, R. (2019). Predation creates unique void layer in membraneaerated biofilms. Water Res., 149, 232–242.
Abstract: The membraneaerated biofilm reactor (MABR) is a novel wastewater treatment technology based on oxygensupplying membranes. The counter diffusion of oxygen and electron donors in MABRs leads to unique behavior, and we hypothesized it also could impact predation. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT), microsensor analyses, and mathematical modeling to investigate predation in membraneaerated biofilms (MABs). When protozoa were excluded from the inoculum, the MAB's OCTobservable void fraction was around 5%. When protozoa were included, the void fraction grew to nearly 50%, with large, continuous voids at the base of the biofilm. Realtime OCT imaging showed highly motile protozoa in the voids. MABs with protozoa and a high bulk COD (270 mg/L) only had 4% void fraction. DNA sequencing revealed a high relative abundance of amoeba in both high and lowCOD MABs. Flagellates were only abundant in the lowCOD MAB. Modeling also suggested a relationship between substrate concentrations, diffusion mode (co or counterdiffusion), and bioflim void fraction. Results suggest that amoeba proliferate in the bioflim interior, especially in the aerobic zones. Voids form once COD limitation at the base of MABs allows predation rates to exceed microbial growth rates. Once formed, the voids provide a niche for motile protozoa, which expand the voids into a large, continuous gap. This increases the potential for biofilm sloughing, and may have detrimental effects on slowgrowing, aerobic microorganisms such as nitrifying bacteria. (C)2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Baler, R. V., Wijnhoven, I. B., del Valle, V. I., Giovanetti, C. M., & Vivanco, J. F. (2019). Microporosity Clustering Assessment in Calcium Phosphate Bioceramic Particles. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol., 7(281), 7 pp.
Abstract: There has been an increase in the application of different biomaterials to repair hard tissues. Within these biomaterials, calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics are suitable candidates, since they can be biocompatible, biodegradable, osteoinductive, and osteoconductive. Moreover, during sintering, bioceramic materials are prone to form micropores and undergo changes in their surface topographical features, which influence cellular physiology and bone ingrowth. In this study, five geometrical properties from the surface of CaP bioceramic particles and their micropores were analyzed by data mining techniques, driven by the research question: what are the geometrical properties of individual micropores in a CaP bioceramic, and how do they relate to each other? The analysis not only shows that it is feasible to determine the existence of micropore clusters, but also to quantify their geometrical properties. As a result, these CaP bioceramic particles present three groups of micropore clusters distinctive by their geometrical properties. Consequently, this new methodological clustering assessment can be applied to advance the knowledge about CaP bioceramics and their role in bone tissue engineering.

Bravo, M., Cominetti, R., & PavezSigne, M. (2019). Rates of convergence for inexact Krasnosel'skiiMann iterations in Banach spaces. Math. Program., 175(12), 241–262.
Abstract: We study the convergence of an inexact version of the classical Krasnosel'skiiMann iteration for computing fixed points of nonexpansive maps. Our main result establishes a new metric bound for the fixedpoint residuals, from which we derive their rate of convergence as well as the convergence of the iterates towards a fixed point. The results are applied to three variants of the basic iteration: infeasible iterations with approximate projections, the Ishikawa iteration, and diagonal Krasnosels'kiiMann schemes. The results are also extended to continuous time in order to study the asymptotics of nonautonomous evolution equations governed by nonexpansive operators.

Cabrera, F., Torres, A., Campos, J. L., & Jeison, D. (2019). Effect of Operational Conditions on the Behaviour and Associated Costs of Mixed Microbial Cultures for PHA Production. Polymers, 11(2), 14 pp.
Abstract: Massive production and disposal of petrochemical derived plastics represent relevant environmental problems. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a renewable alternative that can even be produced from wastes. The production of PHA from acetate using mixed microbial cultures was studied. The effect of two key operational conditions was evaluated, i.e., substrate concentration and cycle length. The effects of these factors on several responses were studied using a surface response methodology. Several reactors were operated under selected conditions for at least 10 solids retention times to ensure stable operation. Results show that conditions providing higher PHA content involve lower biomass productivities. This has a great impact on biomass production costs. Results suggest then that PHA content alone may not be a reasonable criterion for determining optimal conditions for PHB production. If production costs need to be reduced, conditions that provide a lower PHA content in the selection reactor, but a higher biomass productivity may be of interest.

Campos, J. L., Crutchik, D., Franchi, O., Pavissich, J. P., Belmonte, M., Pedrouso, A., et al. (2019). Nitrogen and Phosphorus Recovery From Anaerobically Pretreated AgroFood Wastes: A Review. Front. Sustain. Food Syst., 2, 11 pp.
Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) is commonly used for the stabilization of agrofood wastes and recovery of energy as methane. Since AD removes organic C but not nutrients (N and P), additional processes to remove them are usually applied to meet the stringent effluent criteria. However, in the past years, there was a shift from the removal to the recovery of nutrients as a result of increasing concerns regarding limited natural resources and the importance given to the sustainable treatment technologies. Recovering N and P from anaerobically pretreated agrofood wastes as easily transportable and marketable products has gained increasing importance to meet both regulatory requirements and increase revenue. For this reason, this review paper gives a critical comparison of the available and emerging technologies for N and P recovery from AD residues.

Campos, J. L., Dumais, J., Pavissich, J. P., Franchi, O., Crutchik, D., Belmonte, M., et al. (2019). Predicting Accumulation of Intermediate Compounds in Nitrification and Autotrophic Denitrification Processes: A Chemical Approach. Biomed Res. Int., 2019, 9 pp.
Abstract: Nitrification and sulfurbased autotrophic denitrification processes can be used to remove ammonia from wastewater in an economical way. However, under certain operational conditions, these processes accumulate intermediate compounds, such as elemental sulphur, nitrite, and nitrous oxide, that are noxious for the environment. In order to predict the generation of these compounds, an analysis based on the Gibbs free energy of the possible reactions and on the oxidative capacity of the bulk liquid was done on case study systems. Results indicate that the Gibbs free energy is not a useful parameter to predict the generation of intermediate products in nitrification and autotrophic denitrification processes. Nevertheless, we show that the specific productions of nitrous oxide during nitrification, and of elemental sulphur and nitrite during autotrophic denitrification, are well related to the oxidative capacity of the bulk liquid.

Candia, G., Macedo, J., Jaimes, M. A., & MagnaVerdugo, C. (2019). A New StateoftheArt Platform for Probabilistic and Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment. Seismol. Res. Lett., 90(6), 2262–2275.
Abstract: A new computational platform for seismic hazard assessment is presented. The platform, named SeismicHazard, allows characterizing the intensity, uncertainty, and likelihood of ground motions from subductionzone (shallow interface and intraslab) and crustalzone earthquakes, considering sitespecific as well as regionalbased assessments. The platform is developed as an objectoriented MATLAB graphical user interface, and it features several stateoftheart capabilities for probabilistic and deterministic (scenariobased) seismic hazard assessment. The platform integrates the latest developments in performancebased earthquake engineering for seismic hazard assessment, including seismic zonation models, groundmotion models (GMMs), groundmotion correlation structures, and the estimation of design spectra (uniform hazard spectra, classical conditional mean spectrum (CMS) for a unique tectonic setting). In addition to these standard capabilities, the platform supports advanced features, not commonly found in existing seismic hazard codes, such as (a) computation of source parameters from earthquake catalogs, (b) vectorprobabilistic seismic hazard assessment, (c) hazard evaluation based on conditional GMMs and userdefined GMMs, (d) uncertainty treatment in the median ground motions through continuous GMM distributions, (e) regional shaking fields, and (f) estimation of CMS considering multiple GMMs and multiple tectonic settings. The results from the platform have been validated against accepted and welldocumented benchmark solutions.

Canessa, G., Gallego, J. A., Ntaimo, L., & Pagnoncelli, B. K. (2019). An algorithm for binary linear chanceconstrained problems using IIS. Comput. Optim. Appl., 72(3), 589–608.
Abstract: We propose an algorithm based on infeasible irreducible subsystems to solve binary linear chanceconstrained problems with random technology matrix. By leveraging on the problem structure we are able to generate good quality upper bounds to the optimal value early in the algorithm, and the discrete domain is used to guide us efficiently in the search of solutions. We apply our methodology to individual and joint binary linear chanceconstrained problems, demonstrating the ability of our approach to solve those problems. Extensive numerical experiments show that, in some cases, the number of nodes explored by our algorithm is drastically reduced when compared to a commercial solver.

Canfora, F., Gomberoff, A., Oh, S. H., Rojas, F., & SalgadoRebolledo, P. (2019). Meronic EinsteinYangMills black hole in 5D and gravitational spin from isospin effect. J. High Energy Phys., (6), 32 pp.
Abstract: We construct an analytic black hole solution in SU(2) EinsteinYangMills theory in five dimensions supporting a Meron field. The gauge field is proportional to a pure gauge and has a nontrivial topological charge. The wouldbe singularity at the Meron core gets shielded from the exterior by the black hole horizon. The metric has only one integration constant, namely, its ADM mass, which is shown to be finite once an appropriate boundary term is added to the action. The thermodynamics is also worked out, and a firstorder phase transition, similar to the one occurring in the ReissnerNordstrom case is identified. We also show that the solution produces a spin from isospin effect, i.e., even though the theory is constructed out of bosons only, the combined system of a scalar field and this background may become fermionic. More specifically, we study scalar excitations in this purely bosonic background and find that the system describes fermionic degrees of freedom at spatial infinity. Finally, for the asymptotically AdS(5) case, we study its consequences in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence.
